Comparison of ultrasonography and histologic examination for identification of ocular diseases of animals: 113 cases (2000–2010)

Nicolin S. Gallhoefer Ophthalmology Unit, Equine Department, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.

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Ellison Bentley Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.

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Maja Ruetten Institute of Veterinary Pathology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.

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Paula Grest Institute of Veterinary Pathology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.

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Michael Haessig Ambulatory Clinic and Herd Management Unit, Department for Farm Animals, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.

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Patrick R. Kircher Diagnostic Imaging Unit, Department for Small Animals, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.

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Richard R. Dubielzig Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.

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Bernhard M. Spiess Ophthalmology Unit, Equine Department, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.

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Simon A. Pot Ophthalmology Unit, Equine Department, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.

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Abstract

Objective—To compare ultrasonographic and histologic examination findings for eyes of animals with ocular diseases.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—116 eyes of 113 animals examined at 2 facilities.

Procedures—Diseased eyes of animals were examined by means of ultrasonography, removed via enucleation or exenteration, then histologically examined. Ultrasonographic images and histopathologic slides were evaluated, and diseases of eyes were identified with each of those methods and allocated to various categories. For each disease category, agreement between results of ultrasonography and those of histologic examination was assessed via determination of κ statistic values.

Results—Tests had good agreement for identification of iris or ciliary body neoplasia. Overall, intraocular neoplasia was not detected via ultrasonography for only 2 of 31 eyes with histologically detected neoplasia. Hemorrhagic or inflammatory changes were misinterpreted as neoplasia for 8 of 37 (22%) eyes. Tests had moderate to acceptable agreement for identification of retinal detachment. Retinal detachment was not detected by means of ultrasonography for 14 of 38 (37%) eyes with that diagnosis determined via histologic examination at one of the facilities (primarily in eyes with intraocular hemorrhage); however, retinal detachment was not identified via histologic examination for 6 of 38 (16%) eyes with that diagnosis determined via ultrasonography at the other facility.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Agreement between tests evaluated in this study was clinically satisfactory for identification of intraocular neoplasia. Typically, diseases were misdiagnosed via ultrasonography for eyes with poor image contrast. Because determination of ultrasonographic diagnoses of retinal detachment and intraocular neoplasm may be of prognostic importance, performance of additional ultrasonographic techniques may be indicated.

Abstract

Objective—To compare ultrasonographic and histologic examination findings for eyes of animals with ocular diseases.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—116 eyes of 113 animals examined at 2 facilities.

Procedures—Diseased eyes of animals were examined by means of ultrasonography, removed via enucleation or exenteration, then histologically examined. Ultrasonographic images and histopathologic slides were evaluated, and diseases of eyes were identified with each of those methods and allocated to various categories. For each disease category, agreement between results of ultrasonography and those of histologic examination was assessed via determination of κ statistic values.

Results—Tests had good agreement for identification of iris or ciliary body neoplasia. Overall, intraocular neoplasia was not detected via ultrasonography for only 2 of 31 eyes with histologically detected neoplasia. Hemorrhagic or inflammatory changes were misinterpreted as neoplasia for 8 of 37 (22%) eyes. Tests had moderate to acceptable agreement for identification of retinal detachment. Retinal detachment was not detected by means of ultrasonography for 14 of 38 (37%) eyes with that diagnosis determined via histologic examination at one of the facilities (primarily in eyes with intraocular hemorrhage); however, retinal detachment was not identified via histologic examination for 6 of 38 (16%) eyes with that diagnosis determined via ultrasonography at the other facility.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Agreement between tests evaluated in this study was clinically satisfactory for identification of intraocular neoplasia. Typically, diseases were misdiagnosed via ultrasonography for eyes with poor image contrast. Because determination of ultrasonographic diagnoses of retinal detachment and intraocular neoplasm may be of prognostic importance, performance of additional ultrasonographic techniques may be indicated.

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