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Robert A. Sanders Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824

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Tsumugi A. Kurosawa Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824

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  • 1. Cornell CC, Kittleson MD & Torre PD, et al. Allometric scaling of the M-mode cardiac measurements in normal adult dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2004; 18: 311321.

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  • 2. Tidholm A, Westling AB & Hoglund K, et al. Comparisions of 3-, 2-dimensional, and M-mode echocardiographical methods for estimation of left chamber volumes in dogs with and without acquired heart disease. J Vet Intern Med 2010; 24: 14141420.

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  • 3. Kittleson MD. Drugs used in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. In: Kittleson MD, Kienle RD, eds. Small animal cardiovascular medicine. St Louis: Mosby Year Book Inc, 1998;502524.

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  • 4. Singh S, Klein R & Eisenberg B, et al. Long-term effect of mexiletine on left ventricular function and relation to suppression of ventricular arrhythmia. Am J Cardiol 1990; 66: 12221227.

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  • 5. Dangman KH. Electrophysiologic mechanisms for arrhythmias. In: Fox PR, Sisson D, Moise NS, eds. Textbook of canine and feline cardiology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1999;291305.

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  • 6. Gilmour RF, Moise NS. Triggered activity as a mechanism for inherited ventricular arrhythmias in German Shepherd Dogs. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996; 27: 15261533.

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  • 7. Sosunov EA, Anyukhovsky E P & Shvilkin A, et al. Abnormal cardiac repolarization and impulse initiation in German Shepherd Dogs with inherited ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. Cardiovasc Res 1999; 42: 6579.

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  • 8. Merot J, Probst V & Debailleul M, et al. Electropharmacological characterization of cardiac repolarization in German Shepherd Dogs with an inherited syndrome of sudden death: abnormal response to potassium channel blockers. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000; 36: 939947.

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  • 9. Moise NS. Inherited arrhythmias in the dog: potential experimental models of cardiac disease. Cardiovasc Res 1999; 44: 3746.

  • 10. Moise NS, Riccio ML & Kornreich B, et al. Age dependence of the development of ventricular arrhythmias in a canine model of sudden cardiac death. Cardiovasc Res 1997; 34: 483492.

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  • 11. Moise NS, Meyers-Wallen V & Flahive WJ, et al. Inherited ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death in German Shepherd Dogs. J Am Coll Cardiol 1994; 24: 233243.

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  • 12. Moise NS, Dugger DA & Brittain D, et al. Relationship of ventricular tachycardia to sleep/wakefulness in a model of sudden cardiac death. Pediatr Res 1996; 40: 344350.

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  • 13. Gelzer AR, Kraus MS & Rishniw M, et al. Combination therapy with mexiletine and sotalol suppresses inherited ventricular arrhythmias in German Shepherd Dogs better than mexiletine or sotalol monotherapy: a randomized cross-over study. J Vet Cardiol 2010; 12: 93106.

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  • 14. Kuck KH, Cappato R & Siebels J, et al. Randomized comparison of antiarrhythmic drug therapy with implantable defibrillators in patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest: the Cardiac Arrest Study Hamburg (CASH). Circulation 2000; 102: 748754.

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  • 15. Mason JW. A comparison of seven antiarrhythmic drugs in patients with ventricular tachyarrhythmias. N Engl J Med 1993; 329: 452458.

  • 16. Nelson OL, Lahmers S & Schneider T, et al. The use of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator in a Boxer dog to control clinical signs of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. J Vet Intern Med 2006; 20: 12321237.

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  • 17. Pariaut R, Saelinger C & Queiroz-Williams P, et al. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator in a German Shepherd Dog with ventricular arrhythmias. J Vet Cardiol 2011; 13: 203210.

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  • 18. Moise NS. Diagnosis and management of canine arrhythmias. In: Fox PR, Sisson D, Moise NS, eds. Textbook of canine and feline cardiology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1999;331385.

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