• 1. USDA. Dairy 2007, part II: changes in the U.S. dairy cattle industry, 1991–2007. Fort Collins, Colo: USDA APHIS Veterinary Services Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health, 2007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Maunsell F, Donovan GA. Biosecurity and risk management for dairy replacements. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2008; 24: 155190.

  • 3. USDA. Dairy 2007, part V: changes in dairy cattle health and management practices in the United States, 1996–2007. No. 519.0709. Fort Collins, Colo: USDA APHIS Veterinary Services Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health, 2009.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Stanton AL, Kelton DF & LeBlanc SJ, et al. The effect of treatment with long-acting antibiotic at postweaning movement on respiratory disease and on growth in commercial dairy calves. J Dairy Sci 2010; 93: 574581.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Catry B, Duchateau L & Ven de Van J, et al. Efficacy of metaphylactic florfenicol therapy during natural outbreaks of bovine respiratory disease. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2008; 31: 479487.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Van Donkersgoed J. Meta-analysis of field trials of antimicrobial mass medication for prophylaxis of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle. Can Vet J 1992; 33: 786795.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. USDA. National Animal Health Monitoring System. Part III: health management and biosecurity in U.S. feedlots, 1999. No. N336.1200. Fort Collins, Colo: USDA APHIS Veterinary Services Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health, 2000.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Carroll J, Forsberg NE. Influence of stress and nutrition on cattle immunity. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2007; 23: 105149.

  • 9. USDA. Dairy 2007, heifer calf health and management practices on U.S. dairy operations, 2007. No. 550.0110. Fort Collins, Colo: USDA APHIS Veterinary Services Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health, 2010.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Nowakowski MA, Inskeep PB & Risk JE, et al. Pharmacokinetics and lung tissue concentrations of tulathromycin, a new triamilide antibiotic, in cattle. Vet Ther 2004; 5: 6074.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Godinho KS, Sarasola P & Renoult E, et al. Use of deep nasopharyngeal swabs as a predictive diagnostic method for natural respiratory infections in calves. Vet Rec 2007; 160: 2225.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Godinho KS, Rae A & Windsor GD, et al. Efficacy of tulathromycin in the treatment of bovine respiratory disease associated with induced Mycoplasma bovis infections in young dairy calves. Vet Ther 2005; 6: 96112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Weigel K. Complete and accurate recording of calving ease and stillbirth is key. Available at: www.extension.org/pages/11036/complete-and-accurate-recording-of-calving-ease-and-stillbirth-data-is-key. Accessed Jan 18, 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Dohoo IR, Martin SW, Stryhn H. Veterinary epidemiologic research. Charlottetown, PE, Canada: AVC Inc, 2003.

  • 15. Tyler JW, Hancock DD & Wiksie SE, et al. Use of serum protein concentration to predict mortality in mixed-source dairy replacement heifers. J Vet Intern Med 1998; 12: 7983.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Hogan JS, González RN & Harmon RJ, et al. National Mastitis Council laboratory handbook on bovine mastitis. Madison, Wis: National Mastitis Council, 1999.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Boonyayatra S, Fox LK & Besser TE, et al. Effects of storage methods on the recovery methods of Mycoplasma species from milk samples. Vet Microbial 2010; 144: 210213.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Boonyayatra S, Fox LK & Besser TE, et al. A PCR assay and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism combination identifying the 3 primary Mycoplasma species causing mastitis. J Dairy Sci 2012; 95: 196205.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Biddle MK, Fox LK & Evans SJ, et al. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of Mycoplasma isolates from various body sites in dairy cattle with Mycoplasma mastitis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005; 227: 455459.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Svensson C, Lundborg K & Emanuelson U, et al. Morbidity in Swedish dairy calves from birth to 90 days of age and individual calf-level risk factors for infectious diseases. Prev Vet Med 2003; 58: 179197.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Virtala AMK, Mechor GD, Grohn YT. The effect of calfhood diseases on growth of female dairy calves during the first 3 months of life in New York state. J Dairy Sci 1996; 79: 10401049.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Donovan GA, Dohoo IR & Montgomery DM, et al. Associations between passive immunity and morbidity and mortality in dairy heifers in Florida, USA. Prev Vet Med 1998; 34: 3146.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Waltner-Toews D, Martin SW & Meek AH, et al. Dairy calf management, morbidity and mortality in Ontario Holstein herds. I. The data. Prev Vet Med 1986; 4: 103124.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. USDA. Dairy 2007, part IV: reference of dairy cattle health and management practices in the United States, 2007. No. N494.0209. Fort Collins, Colo: USDA APHIS Veterinary Services Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health, 2009.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Van Donkersgoed J, Ribble C & Boyer LG, et al. Epidemiological study of enzootic pneumonia in dairy calves in Saskatchewan. Can J Vet Res 1993; 57: 247254.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Trotz-Williams LA, Leslie KE, Peregrine AS. Passive immunity in Ontario dairy calves and investigation of its association with calf management practices. J Dairy Sci 2008; 91: 38403849.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27. Donovan GA, Dohoo IR & Montgomery DM, et al. Calf and disease factors affecting growth in female Holstein calves in Florida, USA. Prev Vet Med 1998; 33: 110.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. Sockett DC, Jicinsky SA & Earleywine TJ, et al. Efficacy of tulathromycin and oxytetracycline on reducing the incidence of otitis media caused by Mycoplasma bovis in preweaned Holstein dairy calves, in Proceedings. 41st Annu Am Assoc Bovine Pract Conf 2008;8.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29. Stipkovits L, Ripley PH & Tenk M, et al. The efficacy of valnemulin (Econor) in the control of disease caused by experimental infection of calves with Mycoplasma bovis. Res Vet Sci 2005; 78: 207215.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30. McGuirk SM. Disease management of dairy calves and heifers. Vet Clin Food Anim 2008; 24: 139153.

  • 31. Biddle MK, Fox LK & Hancock DD, et al. Effects of storage time and thawing methods on the recovery of Mycoplasma species in milk samples from cows with intramammary infections. J Dairy Sci 2004; 87: 933936.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32. Stanton AL, Kelton DF & LeBlanc SJ, et al. The effect of respiratory disease and a preventative antibiotic treatment on growth, survival, age at first calving, and milk production of dairy heifers. J Dairy Sci 2012; 95: 49504960.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33. Caswell JL, Archambault M. Mycoplasma bovis pneumonia in cattle. Anim Health Res Rev 2007; 8: 161186.

Advertisement

Effects of tulathromycin on incidence of various diseases and growth of young heifers

Amy L. StantonDepartment of Dairy Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706.

Search for other papers by Amy L. Stanton in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD
,
David F. KeltonDepartment of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, N1G 2W1 ON, Canada.

Search for other papers by David F. Kelton in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD
,
Stephen J. LeBlancDepartment of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, N1G 2W1 ON, Canada.

Search for other papers by Stephen J. LeBlanc in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, DVSc
,
Jeanne WormuthCY Heifer Farm, 5327 Watson Rd, Elba, NY 14058.

Search for other papers by Jeanne Wormuth in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 BSc
,
Lawrence K. FoxDepartment of Animal Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164.

Search for other papers by Lawrence K. Fox in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD
, and
Kenneth E. LeslieDepartment of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, N1G 2W1 ON, Canada.

Search for other papers by Kenneth E. Leslie in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MSc

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of administration of 1 dose of tulathromycin on the incidence of various diseases and growth, identify risk factors for slow growth, and determine the association of Mycoplasma bovis status with the incidence of otitis media in calves.

Design—Randomized controlled trial and cross-sectional study.

Animals—788 dairy heifer calves (median age, 3 days).

Procedures—Calves received tulathromycin or a saline (0.9% NaCl) solution control treatment once. Calves were observed daily for 8 weeks by farm staff to detect diseases. Nasal swab specimens were collected from some calves for Mycoplasma spp culture.

Results—Tulathromycin-treated calves had significantly lower odds of developing otitis media (OR, 0.41; 95% confidence interval, 0.58 to 0.82) versus control calves. Control calves had significantly higher odds of developing diarrhea (OR, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 2.6) versus tulathromycin-treated calves. Control calves and those with failure of passive transfer, fever, lameness, respiratory tract disease, or diarrhea had significantly lower average daily gain versus other calves. Seventeen of the 66 (26%) calves that underwent repeated testing had positive Mycoplasma spp culture results, but positive results were not associated with otitis media. One of 42 calves with otitis media tested for Mycoplasma spp had positive results, and 1 of 43 age-matched calves without otitis media had positive results.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tulathromycin-treated calves in this study had a lower incidence of diarrhea and otitis media versus control calves. Various diseases had negative effects on average daily gain. Mycoplasma bovis status was not associated with otitis media in calves.

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of administration of 1 dose of tulathromycin on the incidence of various diseases and growth, identify risk factors for slow growth, and determine the association of Mycoplasma bovis status with the incidence of otitis media in calves.

Design—Randomized controlled trial and cross-sectional study.

Animals—788 dairy heifer calves (median age, 3 days).

Procedures—Calves received tulathromycin or a saline (0.9% NaCl) solution control treatment once. Calves were observed daily for 8 weeks by farm staff to detect diseases. Nasal swab specimens were collected from some calves for Mycoplasma spp culture.

Results—Tulathromycin-treated calves had significantly lower odds of developing otitis media (OR, 0.41; 95% confidence interval, 0.58 to 0.82) versus control calves. Control calves had significantly higher odds of developing diarrhea (OR, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 2.6) versus tulathromycin-treated calves. Control calves and those with failure of passive transfer, fever, lameness, respiratory tract disease, or diarrhea had significantly lower average daily gain versus other calves. Seventeen of the 66 (26%) calves that underwent repeated testing had positive Mycoplasma spp culture results, but positive results were not associated with otitis media. One of 42 calves with otitis media tested for Mycoplasma spp had positive results, and 1 of 43 age-matched calves without otitis media had positive results.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tulathromycin-treated calves in this study had a lower incidence of diarrhea and otitis media versus control calves. Various diseases had negative effects on average daily gain. Mycoplasma bovis status was not associated with otitis media in calves.

Contributor Notes

This manuscript represents a portion of a thesis submitted by Dr. Stanton to the University of Guelph Department of Population Medicine as partial fulfillment of the requirements for a PhD degree.

Supported by Pfizer Animal Health and the National Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

Presented as a poster at the American Dairy Science Association and American Society of Animal Science Joint Annual Meeting, New Orleans, July 2011.

The authors thank Dr. Suzanne T. Millman and Tina M. Widowski for assistance in statistical interpretations.

Address correspondence to Dr. Stanton (alstanton@wisc.edu).