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Idiopathic ischemic necrosis of an accessory carpal bone in a dog

Karen P. HarrisDepartment of Veterinary Medicine, Cambridge Veterinary School, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0ES, England.

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Sorrel J. Langley-HobbsDepartment of Veterinary Medicine, Cambridge Veterinary School, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0ES, England.

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Abstract

Case Description—A 6-year-old neutered female mixed-breed dog was evaluated because of a 6-week history of left forelimb lameness that varied in severity.

Clinical Findings—Radiography revealed expansile and lytic changes of the left accessory carpal bone (ACB). Results of histologic evaluation of ACB core biopsy specimens indicated areas of bone necrosis. The entire left ACB was excised and submitted for histologic evaluation; results confirmed a diagnosis of idiopathic ischemic necrosis.

Treatment and Outcome—Left pancarpal arthrodesis was performed to treat carpal hyperextension and persistent lameness. The dog had an excellent functional outcome with no other problems related to the carpus until its death 4 years later, further decreasing suspicion that the problem was attributable to an undetected neoplasm or bacterial or fungal osteomyelitis.

Clinical Relevance—The radiographic and histologic findings for the dog of this report were similar to previously reported findings for dogs with ischemic femoral head necrosis and humans with ischemic carpal (pisiform or lunate bone) necrosis. The etiology of the ischemic ACB necrosis in this dog was not determined. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of a dog with idiopathic ischemic ACB necrosis. Idiopathic ischemic necrosis should be included as a differential diagnosis for dogs with lameness and destructive and expansile ACB radiographic lesions. An excellent functional outcome may be attained by means of ACB excision and pancarpal arthrodesis.

Abstract

Case Description—A 6-year-old neutered female mixed-breed dog was evaluated because of a 6-week history of left forelimb lameness that varied in severity.

Clinical Findings—Radiography revealed expansile and lytic changes of the left accessory carpal bone (ACB). Results of histologic evaluation of ACB core biopsy specimens indicated areas of bone necrosis. The entire left ACB was excised and submitted for histologic evaluation; results confirmed a diagnosis of idiopathic ischemic necrosis.

Treatment and Outcome—Left pancarpal arthrodesis was performed to treat carpal hyperextension and persistent lameness. The dog had an excellent functional outcome with no other problems related to the carpus until its death 4 years later, further decreasing suspicion that the problem was attributable to an undetected neoplasm or bacterial or fungal osteomyelitis.

Clinical Relevance—The radiographic and histologic findings for the dog of this report were similar to previously reported findings for dogs with ischemic femoral head necrosis and humans with ischemic carpal (pisiform or lunate bone) necrosis. The etiology of the ischemic ACB necrosis in this dog was not determined. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of a dog with idiopathic ischemic ACB necrosis. Idiopathic ischemic necrosis should be included as a differential diagnosis for dogs with lameness and destructive and expansile ACB radiographic lesions. An excellent functional outcome may be attained by means of ACB excision and pancarpal arthrodesis.

Contributor Notes

The authors thank Fernando Constantino Casas and Jesse Lee for assistance with interpretation of results of histologic evaluation of tissue samples.

Address correspondence to Ms. Harris (kh503@cam.ac.uk).