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Diagnostic accuracy of a point-of-care urine bacteriologic culture test in dogs

Shelly J. Olin DVM1, Joseph W. Bartges DVM, PhD, DACVIM, DACVN2, Rebekah D. Jones3, and David A. Bemis PhD, DACVM4
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  • 1 Department of Small Animal Clinical Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.
  • | 2 Department of Small Animal Clinical Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.
  • | 3 Department of Small Animal Clinical Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.
  • | 4 Department of Small Animal Clinical Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.

Abstract

Objective—To determine diagnostic accuracy of a compartmented bacteriologic culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing plate (CCSP) for detection of bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) in dogs and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates.

Design—Evaluation study.

Sample—62 frozen, previously characterized bacterial isolates from canine urine cultures and 147 canine urine samples.

Procedures—The study was conducted in 2 phases: preliminary assay validation (phase 1) and diagnostic validation (phase 2). For phase 1, the frozen bacterial isolates were revitalized and tested with the CCSP and with standard aerobic microbiological culture (SAMC). For phase 2, the urine samples were tested with the CCSP and SAMC in parallel.

Results—For phase 1, after 24 hours of culture, 46 of 62 (74%) bacterial isolates had growth on the CCSP and all (100%) had growth in SAMC. For bacterial isolates with growth, the CCSP allowed correct identification of 45 of 46 (98%) isolates. Isolates yielding no growth on the CCSP were gram-positive cocci (Staphylococcus spp [n = 7] and Enterococcus spp [9]). In phase 2, the overall diagnostic accuracy of the CCSP, compared with SAMC, was 94% (sensitivity, 81%; specificity, 99%). The positive predictive value was 98% and negative predictive value was 92%. Susceptibility results for enrofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole as determined with the CCSP had greatest concordance with those determined by SAMC (71% and 96%, respectively), compared with other antimicrobial susceptibilities.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of the CCSP led to accurate exclusion of UTI in dogs without a UTI but was less reliable for diagnosis of UTI, particularly infections caused by gram-positive cocci. Standard aerobic microbiological culture remains the gold standard for detection of UTI in dogs.

Contributor Notes

Supported in part by Atlantic Diagnostics and the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine Companion Animal Fund.

The authors thank Mary Jean Bryant for technical assistance and Amanda Callens and Shanna Hillsman for urine sample collection.

Address correspondence to Dr. Olin (solin@utk.edu).