• 1 Harris NB, Barletta RG. Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in veterinary medicine. Clin Microbiol Rev 2001; 14: 489512.

  • 2 Chiodini RJ, Van Kruiningen HJ, Merkal RS. Ruminant paratuberculosis (Johne's disease): the current status and future prospects. Cornell Vet 1984; 74: 218262.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3 Manning EJ, Collins MT. Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis: pathogen, pathogenesis and diagnosis. Rev Sci Tech 2001; 20: 133150.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4 Elzo MA, Rae DO & Lanhart SE, et al. Association between cow reproduction and calf growth traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in a multibreed herd of beef cattle. Trop Anim Health Prod 2009; 41: 851858.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5 Roussel AJ. Control of paratuberculosis in beef cattle. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2011; 27: 593598.

  • 6 Dargatz DA, Byrum BA & Hennager SG, et al. Prevalence of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis among beef cow-calf herds. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001; 219: 497501.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7 Hill BB, West M, Brock KV. An estimated prevalence of Johne's disease in a subpopulation of Alabama beef cattle. J Vet Diagn Invest 2003; 15: 2125.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8 Pence M, Baldwin C, Black CC III. The seroprevalence of Johne's disease in Georgia beef and dairy cull cattle. J Vet Diagn Invest 2003; 15: 475477.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9 Roussel AJ, Libal MC & Whitlock RL, et al. Prevalence of and risk factors for paratuberculosis in purebred beef cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005; 226: 773778.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10 Thorne JG, Hardin LE. Estimated prevalence of paratuberculosis in Missouri, USA cattle. Prev Vet Med 1997; 31: 5157.

  • 11 United States Animal Health Association. Report of the committee on Johne's disease. St Joseph, Mo: United States Animal Health Association, 2007;119.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12 NAHMS. Beef cow-calf studies, part IV: reference of beef cow-calf management practices in the United States, 2007–08. Fort Collins, Colo: USDA National Animal Health Monitoring System, 2010; 122.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13 Benjamin LA, Fosgate GT & Ward MP, et al. Benefits of obtaining test-negative level 4 classification for beef producers in the Voluntary Bovine Johne's Disease Control Program. Prev Vet Med 2009; 91: 280284.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14 USDA. Uniform program standards for the Voluntary Bovine Johne's Disease Control Program. Effective November 1, 2005. APHIS 91–45–016. Fort Collins, Colo: USDA APHIS, 2005; 25.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15 USDA. Uniform program standards for the Voluntary Bovine Johne's Disease Control Program Effective June 1, 2006. APHIS 91–45–016. Fort Collins, Colo: USDA APHIS, 2006; 28.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16 USDA. Uniform program standards for the Voluntary Bovine Johne's Disease Control Program Effective September 1, 2010. APHIS 91–45–016. Fort Collins, Colo: USDA APHIS, 2010; 40.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17 Dohoo I, Martin W, Stryhn H. Veterinary epidemiologic research. Charlottetown, PE, Canada: AVC Inc, 2003; 109, 326.

  • 18 USDA. National statistics for cattle, cattle, calves—price received, measured in CWT $/CWT, 2012. Available at: tx.ag/auveeb. Accessed Jan 23, 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19 Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory. TVMDL fee schedule, 2013. Available at: tvmdl.tamu.edu/tests_services/catalog.php. Accessed Jan 23, 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20 Collins MT, Gardner IA & Garry FB, et al. Consensus recommendations on diagnostic testing for the detection of paratuberculosis in cattle in the United States. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006; 229: 19121919.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21 Raizman EA, Fetrow JP, Wells SJ. Loss of income from cows shedding Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis prior to calving compared with cows not shedding the organism on two Minnesota dairy farms. J Dairy Sci 2009; 92: 49294936.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22 Gonda MG, Chang YM & Shook GE, et al. Effect of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection on production, reproduction, and health traits in US Holsteins. Prev Vet Med 2007; 80: 103119.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23 Johnson-Ifearulundu YJ, Kaneene JB & Sprecher DJ, et al. The effect of subclinical Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection on days open in Michigan, USA, dairy cows. Prev Vet Med 2000; 46: 171181.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24 Johnson-Ifearulundu Y, Kaneene JB, Lloyd JW. Herd-level economic analysis of the impact of paratuberculosis on dairy herds. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999; 214: 822825.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25 Benedictus A, Mitchell RM & Linde-Widmann M, et al. Transmission parameters of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infections in a dairy herd going through a control program. Prev Vet Med 2008; 83: 215227.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26 Greenwood PL. Long-term consequences of birth weight and growth to weaning on carcass, yield and beef quality characteristics of Piedmontese- and Wagyu-sired cattle. Aust J Exp Agric 2006; 46: 257269.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27 Kennedy DJ, Allworth MB. Progress in national control and assurance programs for bovine Johne's disease in Australia. Vet Microbiol 2000; 77: 443451.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28 Corn JL, Manning EJ & Sreevatsan S, et al. Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from free-ranging birds and mammals on livestock premises. Appl Environ Microbiol 2005; 71: 69636967.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29 Stevenson K, Alvarez J & Bakker D, et al. Occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis across host species and European countries with evidence for transmission between wildlife and domestic ruminants. BMC Microbiol 2009; 9: 212.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30 Wang C, Turnbull BW & Grohn YT, et al. Estimating receiver operating characteristic curves with covariates when there is no perfect reference test for diagnosis of Johne's disease. J Dairy Sci 2006; 89: 30383046.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31 Kudahl AB, Nielsen SS, Ostergaard S. Economy, efficacy, and feasibility of a risk-based control program against paratuberculosis. J Dairy Sci 2008; 91: 45994609.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32 Kudahl AB, Sorensen JT & Nielsen SS, et al. Simulated economic effects of improving the sensitivity of a diagnostic test in paratuberculosis control. Prev Vet Med 2007; 78: 118129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33 Osterstock JB, Fosgate GT & Norby B, et al. Contribution of environmental mycobacteria to false-positive serum ELISA results for paratuberculosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007; 230: 896901.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34 Roussel AJ, Fosgate GT & Manning EJ, et al. Association of fecal shedding of mycobacteria with high ELISA-determined seroprevalence for paratuberculosis in beef herds. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007; 230: 890895.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Comparison of calf weaning weight and associated economic variables between beef cows with and without serum antibodies against or isolation from feces of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis

Bikash Bhattarai BVSC&AH, PhD1, Geoffrey T. Fosgate DVM, PhD, DACVPM2, Jason B. Osterstock DVM, PhD3, Charles P. Fossler DVM, PhD4, Seong C. Park PhD5, and Allen J. Roussel DVM, MS, DACVIM6
View More View Less
  • 1 Departments of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843
  • | 2 Department of Production Animals Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa
  • | 3 Zoetis, 333 Portage St, MS KZO-300-210SE, Kalamazoo, MI 49007
  • | 4 National Animal Health Monitoring System, USDA APHIS Veterinary Services Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health, 2150 Centre Ave, Bldg B, Mail Stop 2E7, Fort Collins, CO 80526
  • | 5 Texas A&M AgriLife Research and Extension Center, PO Box 1658, Vernon, TX 76384
  • | 6 Veterinary Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843

Abstract

Objective—To compare calf weaning weight and associated economic variables for beef cows with serum antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) or from which MAP was isolated from feces with those for cows that were seronegative for antibodies against or culture negative for MAP.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—4,842 beef cows from 3 herds enrolled in the USDA National Johne's Disease Demonstration Herd Project.

Procedures—Individual cow ELISA and culture results were obtained from the project database. During each parity evaluated for each cow, the 205-day adjusted weaning weight (AWW) of its calf was calculated. The AWW was compared between test-positive and test-negative cows by use of multilevel mixed-effect models. The median value for feeder calves from 2007 to 2011 was used to estimate the economic losses associated with MAP test–positive cows.

Results—The AWW of calves from cows with strongly positive ELISA results was 21.48 kg (47.26 lb) less than that of calves from cows with negative ELISA results. The AWW of calves from cows classified as heavy or moderate MAP shedders was 58.51 kg (128.72 lb) and 40.81 kg (89.78 lb) less, respectively, than that of calves from MAP culture–negative cows. Associated economic losses were estimated as $57.49/calf for cows with strongly positive ELISA results and $156.60/calf and $109.23/calf for cows classified as heavy and moderate MAP shedders, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Calves from cows with MAP-positive test results had significantly lower AWWs than did calves from cows with MAP-negative test results, which translated into economic losses for MAP-infected beef herds.

Contributor Notes

Supported by a Cooperative Agreement from the USDA APHIS National Johne's Disease Demonstration Herd Project.

The authors thank Drs. Owen Rae and Thomas Moss for contribution of data.

Address correspondence to Dr. Bhattarai (bikashvet@gmail.com).