• 1. Dexdomitor [package insert]. Espoo, Finland: Orion Corp, 2007.

  • 2. Ossipov MH, Harris S & Lloyd P, et al. Antinociceptive interaction between opioids and medetomidine: systemic additivity and spinal synergy. Anesthesiology 1990; 73: 12271235.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Firth EC, Nouws JFM & Driessens F, et al. Effect of the injection site on the pharmacokinetics of procaine penicillin G in horses. Am J Vet Res 1986; 47: 23802384.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Marshall AB, Palmer GH. Injection sites and drug bioavailability. In: Van Miert ASJPAMFrens JVander Kreek FW eds. Trends in veterinary pharmacology and toxicology. Amsterdam: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co, 1980;5460.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Baxter JS, Evans JM. Intramuscular injection in the cat. J Small Anim Pract 1973; 14: 297302.

  • 6. Hartman EG. Influence of the injection site on the depot-effect of procaine penicillin in dogs. In: Van Miert ASJPAMBogaert MGDebackere M eds. Comparative veterinary pharmacology, toxicology, and therapy. Lancaster, Lancashire, England: MTP Press Ltd, 1987;8591.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Nouws JF, Vree TB. Effect of injection site on the bioavailability of an oxytetracycline formation in ruminant calves. Vet Q 1983; 5: 165170.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Wilson RC, Duran SH & Horton CR Jr, et al. Bioavailability of gentamicin in dogs after intramuscular or subcutaneous injections. Am J Vet Res 1989; 50: 17481750.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Oukessou M. Influence of injection site on the absorption of benzylpenicillin sodium in the dromedary. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A 1995; 42: 431434.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Greenblatt DJ, Koch-Weser J. Intramuscular injection of drugs. N Engl J Med 1976; 295: 542546.

  • 11. Self IA, Hughes JML & Kenney DA, et al. Effect of muscle injection site on preanaesthetic sedation in dogs. Vet Rec 2009; 164: 323326.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Autefage A, Fayolle P, Toutain PL. Distribution of material injected intramuscularly in dogs. Am J Vet Res 1990; 51: 901904.

  • 13. Clutton RE, Bracken J, Ritchie M. Effect of muscle injection site and drug temperature on pre-anaesthetic sedation in pigs. Vet Rec 1998; 142: 718721.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Benet LZ, Kroetz DL, Sheiner LB. Pharmacokinetics: the dynamics of drug absorption, distribution, and elimination. In: Goodman and Gilman's the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 9th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996;327.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Evans HE. The heart and arteries. In: Miller's anatomy of the dog. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1993;587681.

  • 16. Boyd JS. Selection of sites for intramuscular injection in the neck of the horse. Vet Rec 1987; 121: 197200.

  • 17. Herbert GL, Bowlt KL & Fort-Fennah V, et al. Alfaxalone for total intravenous anaesthesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy: a comparison of premedication with acepromazine or dexmedetomidine. Vet Anaesth Analg 2013; 40: 124133.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Bell AM, Auckburally A & Pawson P, et al. Two doses of dexmedetomidine in combination with buprenorphine for premedication in dogs; a comparison with acepromazine and buprenorphine. Vet Anaesth Analg 2011; 38: 1523.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Grint NJ, Alderson B, Dugdale AH. A comparison of acepromazine-buprenorphine and medetomidine-buprenorphine for preanesthetic medication of dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010; 237: 14311437.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Onset and quality of sedation after intramuscular administration of dexmedetomidine and hydromorphone in various muscle groups in dogs

Jennifer E. Carter DVM, DACVAA1, Crace Lewis2, and Thierry Beths DVM, PhD3
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Ross University, Basseterre, Saint Kitts, West Indies.
  • | 2 Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Ross University, Basseterre, Saint Kitts, West Indies.
  • | 3 Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Ross University, Basseterre, Saint Kitts, West Indies.

Abstract

Objective—To compare onset time and quality of sedation achieved by IM injection of hydromorphone and dexmedetomidine into either the semimembranosus, cervical, gluteal, or lumbar muscle groups in dogs.

Design—Prospective, randomized, crossover study.

Animals—7 dogs.

Procedures—Each dog was assigned to receive each treatment in random order, and at least 1 week elapsed between treatments. Dogs were sedated with dexmedetomidine and hydromorphone combined and injected IM into the assigned muscle group. An observer unaware of group assignments assessed physiologic variables every 5 minutes for 30 minutes, and a videographic recording was obtained. Recordings were evaluated by 16 individuals who were unaware of group assignments; these reviewers assessed time to onset of sedation and assigned a sedation score to each dog every 5 minutes.

Results—Resting pulse and respiratory rates did not differ among injection site groups. The semimembranosus site had a significantly higher sedation score than all other sites, and the cervical site had a significantly higher sedation score than the lumbar and gluteal sites. The semimembranosus and cervical sites had significantly shorter time to onset of sedation than did the gluteal and lumbar sites.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—When the combination of dexmedetomidine and hydromorphone was used to induce sedation in dogs, rapid and profound sedation was achieved with IM injection into the semimembranosus muscle.

Contributor Notes

Drs. Carter and Beths’ present address is Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Melbourne, Werribee, VIC 3030, Australia.

Supported by an internal research grant from Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine.

The authors thank Crispin Worrell and Shakima Connor for contributions to the study.

Address correspondence to Dr. Carter (jennifer.carter@unimelb.edu.au).