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Influence of ketamine on the cardiopulmonary effects of intramuscular administration of dexmedetomidine-buprenorphine with subsequent reversal with atipamezole in dogs

Jeff C. Ko DVM, MS, DACVA1, Michele Barletta DVM, PhD, DACVA2, Ismail Sen DVM, PhD3, Ann B. Weil MS, DVM, DACVA4, Rebecca A. Krimins DVM, MS5, Mark E. Payton PhD6, and Peter Constable BVSc, PhD, DACVIM, DACVN7
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  • 1 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 2 Veterinary Medical Center, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.
  • | 3 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Selcuk, Konya, 42031 Turkey.
  • | 4 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 5 Veterinary Imaging of the Chesapeake, 808 Bestgate Rd, Annapolis, MD 21401.
  • | 6 Department of Statistics, College of Arts and Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078.
  • | 7 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.

Abstract

Objective—To compare the cardiorespiratory effects of IM administration of dexmedetomidine-buprenorphine (DB) and dexmedetomidine-buprenorphine-ketamine (DBK) in dogs with subsequent reversal with atipamezole.

Design—Prospective, randomized crossover study.

Animals—5 healthy dogs.

Procedures—Dogs were instrumented for cardiac output (CO) measurement and received DB (15 μg of dexmedetomidine/kg [6.8 μg/lb] and 40 μg of buprenorphine/kg [18.2 μg/lb]) or DBK (DB plus 3 mg of ketamine/kg [1.36 mg/lb]) in randomized order while breathing room air. Atipamezole (150 μg/kg [68.2 μg/lb], IM) was administered 1 hour later. Hemodynamic data were collected in the conscious dogs and then at 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after drug administration. Lactate concentration was measured in mixed venous blood samples. Oxygen delivery (Do2) and oxygen consumption (o2) were calculated.

Results—Heart rate (HR), CO, and Do2 decreased after DB and DBK administration. The o2 did not change in the DB group but decreased in the DBK group. The HR was higher in the DBK group than in the DB group throughout the study, but the CO, Do2, and o2 values were similar for the 2 groups. Blood lactate concentrations remained low (< 1 mmol/L) throughout the study. Arterial hypoxemia and hypercapnea occurred in both groups. Mean arterial blood pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure were markedly increased in both groups, but to a greater extent in the DBK group. After atipamezole administration, HR, CO, and Do2 returned to the baseline values.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Adding ketamine to the DB combination allowed dogs to maintain a higher HR and delayed the onset of sinus arrhythmias but failed to provide a significantly higher CO because of a reduction in stroke volume.

Abstract

Objective—To compare the cardiorespiratory effects of IM administration of dexmedetomidine-buprenorphine (DB) and dexmedetomidine-buprenorphine-ketamine (DBK) in dogs with subsequent reversal with atipamezole.

Design—Prospective, randomized crossover study.

Animals—5 healthy dogs.

Procedures—Dogs were instrumented for cardiac output (CO) measurement and received DB (15 μg of dexmedetomidine/kg [6.8 μg/lb] and 40 μg of buprenorphine/kg [18.2 μg/lb]) or DBK (DB plus 3 mg of ketamine/kg [1.36 mg/lb]) in randomized order while breathing room air. Atipamezole (150 μg/kg [68.2 μg/lb], IM) was administered 1 hour later. Hemodynamic data were collected in the conscious dogs and then at 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after drug administration. Lactate concentration was measured in mixed venous blood samples. Oxygen delivery (Do2) and oxygen consumption (o2) were calculated.

Results—Heart rate (HR), CO, and Do2 decreased after DB and DBK administration. The o2 did not change in the DB group but decreased in the DBK group. The HR was higher in the DBK group than in the DB group throughout the study, but the CO, Do2, and o2 values were similar for the 2 groups. Blood lactate concentrations remained low (< 1 mmol/L) throughout the study. Arterial hypoxemia and hypercapnea occurred in both groups. Mean arterial blood pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure were markedly increased in both groups, but to a greater extent in the DBK group. After atipamezole administration, HR, CO, and Do2 returned to the baseline values.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Adding ketamine to the DB combination allowed dogs to maintain a higher HR and delayed the onset of sinus arrhythmias but failed to provide a significantly higher CO because of a reduction in stroke volume.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Ko (jcko@purdue.edu).