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Structural and functional cardiovascular changes and their consequences following interventional patent ductus arteriosus occlusion in dogs: 24 cases (2000–2006)

Christopher D. StauthammerDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.

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Anthony H. TobiasDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.

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Damon B. LeederDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.

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Maxie U. KrügerDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.

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Abstract

Objective—To investigate cardiovascular changes and survival times following complete interventional device occlusion of uncomplicated left-to-right shunting patent ductus arteriosus in dogs.

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—24 dogs with uncomplicated patent ductus arteriosus that was fully occluded and reevaluated within 24 hours, approximately 3 months, and 1 year after the procedure.

Procedures—Information on medical history, diagnostic imaging findings, treatment received, and survival times were obtained from medical records. Patients were allocated into 2 groups on the basis of age (< 1 year [n = 14] and ≥ 1 year [10]) at the time of the procedure. Additional follow-up information was obtained through interviews of owners and referral veterinarians.

Results—Following ductal occlusion, decreases were detected in vertebral heart scale size, left ventricular chamber diameter in diastole and in systole, left atrial dimension, fractional shortening, aortic velocity, and ventricular wall thickness. There were no differences between age groups for postocclusion changes except vertebral heart scale size. Systolic dysfunction was detected in 14 (58%) patients on the final visit. Median survival time for all dogs after ductal occlusion was > 11.5 years.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Complete ductal occlusion resulted in immediate removal of the volume overload state and eventual return of cardiac chamber dimensions to reference range, suggesting regression of eccentric hypertrophy. Systolic dysfunction persisted in some dogs but appeared to be clinically unimportant. Most cardiovascular changes were independent of patient age at the time of the procedure.

Abstract

Objective—To investigate cardiovascular changes and survival times following complete interventional device occlusion of uncomplicated left-to-right shunting patent ductus arteriosus in dogs.

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—24 dogs with uncomplicated patent ductus arteriosus that was fully occluded and reevaluated within 24 hours, approximately 3 months, and 1 year after the procedure.

Procedures—Information on medical history, diagnostic imaging findings, treatment received, and survival times were obtained from medical records. Patients were allocated into 2 groups on the basis of age (< 1 year [n = 14] and ≥ 1 year [10]) at the time of the procedure. Additional follow-up information was obtained through interviews of owners and referral veterinarians.

Results—Following ductal occlusion, decreases were detected in vertebral heart scale size, left ventricular chamber diameter in diastole and in systole, left atrial dimension, fractional shortening, aortic velocity, and ventricular wall thickness. There were no differences between age groups for postocclusion changes except vertebral heart scale size. Systolic dysfunction was detected in 14 (58%) patients on the final visit. Median survival time for all dogs after ductal occlusion was > 11.5 years.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Complete ductal occlusion resulted in immediate removal of the volume overload state and eventual return of cardiac chamber dimensions to reference range, suggesting regression of eccentric hypertrophy. Systolic dysfunction persisted in some dogs but appeared to be clinically unimportant. Most cardiovascular changes were independent of patient age at the time of the procedure.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Tobias’ present address is Animal Critical Care and Emergency Services Seattle, 11536 Lake City Way NE, Seattle, WA 98125.

Dr. Leeder's present address is Veterinary Emergency and Specialty Center, 3312 W Cary St, Richmond, VA 23221.

This study was performed at and all animals were evaluated through the University of Minnesota.

Supported by AGA Medical Corp.

Presented in abstract form at the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Forum, Seattle, June 2007.

The authors thank Dr. Kenneth Lamb for statistical assistance.

Address correspondence to Dr. Stauthammer (staut004@umn.edu).