• 1. Bush WW, Barr CS, Darrin EW, et al. Results of cerebrospinal fluid analysis, neurologic examination findings, and age at the onset of seizures as predictors for results of magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in dogs examined because of seizures: 115 cases (1992–2000). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002; 220: 781784.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Barnes HL, Chrisman CL, Mariani CL, et al. Clinical signs, underlying cause, and outcome in cats with seizures: 17 cases (1997–2002). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004; 225: 17231726.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Pakozdy A, Leschnik M, Sarchahi AA, et al. Clinical comparison of primary versus secondary epilepsy in 125 cats. J Feline Med Surg 2010; 12: 910916.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Quesnel AD, Parent JM, McDonell W, et al. Diagnostic evaluation of cats with seizure disorders: 30 cases (1991–1993). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997; 210: 6571.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Schriefl S, Steinberg TA, Matiasek K, et al. Etiologic classification of seizures, signalment, clinical signs, and outcome in cats with seizure disorders: 91 cases (2000–2004). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008; 233: 15911597.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. MacKillop E. Magnetic resonance imaging of intracranial malformations associated with dogs and cats. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2011; 52: S42S51.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. de Lahunta A, Glass EN. Cerebrospinal fluid and hydrocephalus. In: De Lahunta A, Glass EN, eds. Veterinary neuroanatomy and clinical neurology. 3rd ed. St Louis: Saunders Elsevier, 2009; 5476.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Low C, Garzon E, Carrete H Jr, et al. Early destructive lesions in the developing brain: clinical and electrographic correlates. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2007; 65: 416422.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Raybaud C. Destructive lesions of the brain. Neuroradiology. 1983; 25: 265291

  • 10. Haberland C. Fetal and perinatal cerebral pathology. In: Clinical neuropathology: text and color atlas. New York: Demos Medical Publishing, 2007; 299307.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Mancini GMS, de Coo IFM, Lequin MH, et al. Hereditary porencephaly: clinical and MRI findings in two Dutch families. Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2004; 8: 4554.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Davies ES, Volk HA, Behr S, et al. Porencephaly and hydranencephaly in six dogs. Vet Rec 2012; 170: 179.

  • 13. Schmidt MJ, Klump S, Amort K, et al. Porencephaly in dogs and cats: magnetic resonance imaging findings and clinical signs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2012; 53: 142149.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. de Lahunta A, Glass E. Upper motor neuron. In: De Lahunta A, Glass E, eds. Veterinary neuroanatomy and clinical neurology. 3rd ed. St Louis: Saunders Elsevier, 2009; 192220.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Ho SS, Kuzniecky RI, Gilliam F, et al. Congenital porencephaly: MR features and relationship to hippocampal sclerosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1998; 19: 135141.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Fusco L, Pachatz C, Cusmai R, et al. Repetitive sleep starts in neurologically impaired children: an unusual non-epileptic manifestation in otherwise epileptic subjects. Epileptic Disord 1999; 1: 6367.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Bailey KS, Dewey CW, Boothe DM, et al. Levetiracetam as an adjunct to phenobarbital treatment in cats with suspected idiopathic epilepsy. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008; 232: 867872.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

What Is Your Neurologic Diagnosis?

Baye G. Williamson DVM1 and Dennis P. O'Brien DVM, PhD, DACVIM2
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211.
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211.

An 11-month-old 3.66-kg (8.05-lb) castrated male domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of a history of hypnic jerks since the owners acquired him. The cat had been found roadside at 2 weeks of age and had since been an indoor cat in a multicat household. Hypnic jerks are brief, myoclonic muscle twitches that occur at sleep onset occasionally in clinically normal individuals. This cat's hypnic jerks had progressed to focal seizures with impaired consciousness 4 months prior to evaluation. The seizures involved sudden bursts of violent activity and altered consciousness. Initially, seizures occurred several weeks apart but increased in frequency

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Williamson (williamsonbg@missouri.edu).