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Evaluation of the effects of tricaine methanesulfonate on retinal structure and function in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio)

Kate M. Bailey DVM1, Julie E. Hempstead DVM2, Jeremy R. Tobias DVM3, Luke B. Borst DVM, PhD, DACVP4, Alison B. Clode DVM, DACVO5, and Lysa P. Posner DVM, DACVA6
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  • 1 Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607.
  • | 2 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607.
  • | 3 Department of Public Health and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607.
  • | 4 Department of Public Health and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607.
  • | 5 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607.
  • | 6 Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607.

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether repeated exposure to clinically relevant concentrations of tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) would alter retinal function or induce histologically detectable retinal lesions in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

Design—Prospective, controlled, experimental study.

Animals—18 healthy koi carp.

Procedures—2 fish were euthanized at the start of the study, and eyes were submitted for histologic evaluation as untreated controls. Anesthesia was induced in the remaining fish with 200 mg of MS-222/L and maintained with concentrations of 125 to 150 mg/L for a total exposure time of 20 minutes daily on 1 to 13 consecutive days. On days 1, 7, and 13, electroretinography of both eyes was performed in all fish remaining in the study, and 2 fish were euthanized immediately after each procedure for histologic evaluation of the eyes. Median b-wave amplitudes were compared among study days for right eyes and for left eyes via 1-way repeated-measures ANOVA with a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons.

Results—Median b-wave amplitudes on days 1, 7, and 13 were 17.7, 20.9, and 17.6 μV, respectively, for right eyes and 15.1, 16.9, and 14.3 μV, respectively, for left eyes. No significant differences in b-wave amplitudes were detected among study days. No histopathologic abnormalities were identified in the retinas of any fish treated with MS-222 or in control fish.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Short-term exposure of koi carp to clinically relevant concentrations of MS-222 daily for up to 13 days was not associated with changes in retinal structure or function as measured in this study.

Contributor Notes

The authors thank Shane Christian and Sathya Chinnadurai for medical consultation and technical assistance.

Address correspondence to Dr. Bailey (kate_bailey@ncsu.edu).