Immunity in heifers 12 months after vaccination with a multivalent vaccine containing a United States Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo isolate

Alicia D. Zimmerman Rural Technologies Inc, 1008 32nd Ave, Brookings, SD, 57006.

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Eric W. Springer Novartis Animal Health US Inc, 3200 Northline Ave, Ste 300, Greensboro, NC 27408.

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Kerry S. Barling Bull Creek Veterinary Services PLLC, 21206 FM 244, Iola, TX 77861.

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Robin E. Buterbaugh Rural Technologies Inc, 1008 32nd Ave, Brookings, SD, 57006.

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Ryan D. Pooley Novartis Animal Health US Inc, 3200 Northline Ave, Ste 300, Greensboro, NC 27408.

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Douglas A. Scholz Novartis Animal Health US Inc, 3200 Northline Ave, Ste 300, Greensboro, NC 27408.

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James R. Rhoades Novartis Animal Health US Inc, 3200 Northline Ave, Ste 300, Greensboro, NC 27408.

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Christopher C. L. Chase Rural Technologies Inc, 1008 32nd Ave, Brookings, SD, 57006.
Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, College of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57006.

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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate immunity induced by a multivalent vaccine containing a US Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo type hardjo bovis (LHB) isolate in heifers challenged 12 months after vaccination.

Design—Prospective vaccine challenge study.

Animals—36 one-month old Holstein heifers.

Procedures—18 heifers were vaccinated at 4 and 8 weeks of age with an inactivated vaccine containing Leptospira fractions. Additionally, 18 heifers were vaccinated at the same age with the same vaccine without any Leptospira fractions. All heifers were challenged with a US-origin LHB 12 months following booster vaccination. Urine samples were collected weekly for 8 weeks after challenge, and serum was collected at −1, 28, and 56 days after challenge for serologic testing. At 8 weeks after challenge, all heifers were necropsied, and kidney and reproductive system samples were collected for bacteriologic culture.

Results—4 of 18 vaccinates had positive results of bacteriologic culture of urine samples, but only at 1 time point. All control heifers had positive results of bacteriologic culture of urine samples for at least 5 time points. Vaccinates had negative results of bacteriologic culture of kidney and reproductive system samples following necropsy, whereas all control heifers had positive results of bacteriologic culture of kidney samples and 5 of 18 had positive results of bacteriologic culture of reproductive system samples.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The vaccine administered to calves at 1 month of age prevented leptospire colonization of kidney and reproductive system tissue and significantly reduced urine shedding following challenge 12 months after vaccination. This vaccine provides an opportunity to protect calves at an early age from becoming infected and ultimately from becoming an LHB reservoir.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate immunity induced by a multivalent vaccine containing a US Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo type hardjo bovis (LHB) isolate in heifers challenged 12 months after vaccination.

Design—Prospective vaccine challenge study.

Animals—36 one-month old Holstein heifers.

Procedures—18 heifers were vaccinated at 4 and 8 weeks of age with an inactivated vaccine containing Leptospira fractions. Additionally, 18 heifers were vaccinated at the same age with the same vaccine without any Leptospira fractions. All heifers were challenged with a US-origin LHB 12 months following booster vaccination. Urine samples were collected weekly for 8 weeks after challenge, and serum was collected at −1, 28, and 56 days after challenge for serologic testing. At 8 weeks after challenge, all heifers were necropsied, and kidney and reproductive system samples were collected for bacteriologic culture.

Results—4 of 18 vaccinates had positive results of bacteriologic culture of urine samples, but only at 1 time point. All control heifers had positive results of bacteriologic culture of urine samples for at least 5 time points. Vaccinates had negative results of bacteriologic culture of kidney and reproductive system samples following necropsy, whereas all control heifers had positive results of bacteriologic culture of kidney samples and 5 of 18 had positive results of bacteriologic culture of reproductive system samples.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The vaccine administered to calves at 1 month of age prevented leptospire colonization of kidney and reproductive system tissue and significantly reduced urine shedding following challenge 12 months after vaccination. This vaccine provides an opportunity to protect calves at an early age from becoming infected and ultimately from becoming an LHB reservoir.

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