• 1. Gaynor JS, Dunlop CI, Wagner AE, et al. Complications and mortality associated with anesthesia in dogs and cats. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1999; 35: 1317.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Shepard MK, Accola PJ, Lopez LA, et al. Effect of duration and type of anesthetic on tear production in dogs. Am J Vet Res 2011; 72: 608612.

  • 3. Ghaffari MS, Moghaddassi AP. Effects of ketamine-diazepam and ketamine-acepromazine combinations on intraocular pressure in rabbits. Vet Anaesth Analg 2010; 37: 269272.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Mirakhur RK, Elliott P, Shepherd WF, et al. Comparison of the effects of isoflurane and halothane on intraocular pressure. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1990; 34: 282285.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Jurk IR, Thibodeau MS, Whitney K, et al. Acute vision loss after general anesthesia in a cat. Vet Ophthalmol 2001; 4: 155158.

  • 6. Shen Y, Drum M, Roth S. The prevalence of perioperative visual loss in the United States: a 10-year study from 1996 to 2005 of spinal, orthopedic, cardiac, and general surgery. Anesth Analg 2009; 109: 15341545.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Son WG, Jung BY, Kwon TE, et al. Acute temporary visual loss after general anesthesia in a cat. J Vet Clin 2009; 26: 480482.

  • 8. Yu HD, Chou AH, Yang MW, et al. An analysis of perioperative eye injuries after nonocular surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Taiwan 2010; 48: 122129.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Moos DD, Lind DM. Detection and treatment of perioperative corneal abrasions. J Perianesth Nurs 2006; 21: 332338.

  • 10. White E, Crosse MM. The aetiology and prevention of perioperative corneal abrasions. Anaesthesia 1998; 53: 157161.

  • 11. Vestre WA, Brightman AH II, Helper LC, et al. Decreased tear production associated with general anesthesia in the dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1979; 174: 10061007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Ellis JL, Thomason J, Kebreab E, et al. Cranial dimensions and forces of biting in the domestic dog. J Anat 2009; 214: 362373.

  • 13. Cross DA, Krupin T. Implications of the effects of general anesthesia on basal tear production. Anesth Analg 1977; 56: 3537.

  • 14. Holly FJ, Lemp MA. Tear physiology and dry eyes. Surv Ophthalmol 1977; 22: 6987.

  • 15. Ghaffari MS, Moghaddassi AP, Bokaie S. Effects of intramuscular acepromazine and diazepam on tear production in rabbits. Vet Rec 2009; 164: 147148.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Dodam JR, Branson KR, Martin DD. Effects of intramuscular sedative and opioid combinations on tear production in dogs. Vet Ophthalmol 1998; 1: 5759.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Ghaffari MS, Madani S, Trbolova A, et al. Effects of intramuscular chlorpromazine alone and chlorpromazine-morphine combination on Schirmer tear test results in clinically normal dogs. Comp Clin Pathol 2011; 20: 413415.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Ghaffari MS, Malmasi A, Bokaie S. Effect of acepromazine or xylazine on tear production as measured by Schirmer tear test in normal cats. Vet Ophthalmol 2010; 13: 13.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Biricik HS, Ceylan C, Sakar M. Effects of pethidine and fentanyl on tear production in dogs. Vet Rec 2004; 155: 564565.

  • 20. Dartt DA. Neural regulation of lacrimal gland secretory processes: relevance in dry eye diseases. Prog Retin Eye Res 2009; 28: 155177.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Kyles AE, Papich M, Hardie EM. Disposition of transdermally administered fentanyl in dogs. Am J Vet Res 1996; 57: 715719.

  • 22. Pekcan Z, Koc B. The post-operative analgesic effects of epidurally administered morphine and transdermal fentanyl patch after ovariohysterectomy in dogs. Vet Anaesth Analg 2010; 37: 557565.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Nakajima S, Takamatsu Y, Fukuoka T, et al. Spontaneous blink rates of domestic dogs: a preliminary report. J Vet Behav Clin Appl Res 2011; 6: 95.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Carrington SD, Bedford PGC, Guillon JP, et al. Polarized light biomicroscopic observations on the pre-corneal tear film. 1. The normal tear film of the dog. J Small Anim Pract 1987; 28: 605622.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Schmidt MJ, Neumann AC, Amort KH, et al. Cephalometric measurements and determination of general skull type of Cavalier King Charles Spaniels. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2011; 52: 436440.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Barrett PM, Scagliotti RH, Merideth RE, et al. Absolute corneal sensitivity and corneal trigeminal nerve anatomy in normal dogs. Prog Vet Comp Ophthalmol 1991; 1: 245254.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27. Kafarnik C, Fritsche J, Reese S. Corneal innervation in mesocephalic and brachycephalic dogs and cats: assessment using in vivo confocal microscopy. Vet Ophthalmol 2008; 11: 363367.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. Kim JY, Won H, Jeong S. A retrospective study of ulcerative keratitis in 32 dogs. Intern J Appl Res Vet Med 2009; 7: 2731.

  • 29. Cucchiara RF, Black S. Corneal abrasion during anesthesia and surgery. Anesthesiology 1988; 69: 978979.

  • 30. Roth S, Thisted RA, Erickson JP, et al. Eye injuries after nonocular surgery. A study of 60,965 anesthetics from 1988 to 1992. Anesthesiology 1996; 85: 10201027.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31. Hellyer PW. Objective, categoric methods for assessing pain and analgesia. In: Gaynor JS, Muir WW III, eds. Handbook of veterinary pain management. St Louis: Mosby, 2002; 90.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32. Grover VK, Kumar KVM, Sharma S, et al. Comparison of methods of eye protection under general anaesthesia. Can J Anaesth 1998; 45: 575577.

  • 33. Batra YK, Bali IM. Corneal abrasions during general anesthesia. Anesth Analg 1977; 56: 363365.

  • 34. Orlin SE, Kurata FK, Krupin T, et al. Ocular lubricants and corneal injury during anesthesia. Anesth Analg 1989; 69: 384385.

  • 35. Edsman K, Carlfors J, Harju K. Rheological evaluation and ocular contact time of some carbomer gels for ophthalmic use. Int J Pharm 1996; 137: 233241.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36. Paugh JR, Nguyen AL, Ketelson HA, et al. Precorneal residence time of artificial tears measured in dry eye subjects. Optom Vis Sci 2008; 85: 725731.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37. Martin DP, Weingarten TN, Gunn PW, et al. Performance improvement system and postoperative corneal injuries: incidence and risk factors. Anesthesiology 2009; 111: 320326.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Evaluation of risk factors for development of corneal ulcer after nonocular surgery in dogs: 14 cases (2009–2011)

Young-Woo Park DVM1, Won-Gyun Son DVM2, Man-Bok Jeong DVM, PhD3, Kangmoon Seo DVM, PhD4, Lyon Y. Lee DVM, PhD, DACVA5, and Inhyung Lee DVM, PhD6
View More View Less
  • 1 Departments of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, BK21 Program and Research Institute for Veterinary Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Korea.
  • | 2 Departments of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, BK21 Program and Research Institute for Veterinary Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Korea.
  • | 3 Departments of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, BK21 Program and Research Institute for Veterinary Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Korea.
  • | 4 Departments of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, BK21 Program and Research Institute for Veterinary Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Korea.
  • | 5 College of Veterinary Medicine, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766.
  • | 6 Departments of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, BK21 Program and Research Institute for Veterinary Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Korea.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for development of corneal ulcers after nonocular surgery performed with general anesthesia in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—14 dogs with development of corneal ulcers after nonocular surgery and 718 control dogs.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs evaluated at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of Seoul National University from January 2009 to June 2011 were reviewed for assessment of risk factors for development of corneal ulcers.

Results—Among the 732 reviewed cases, 14 (1.9%) dogs of 6 breeds developed a corneal ulcer after nonocular surgery. Duration of anesthesia was significantly longer in dogs with ulcers than dogs without ulcers. The number of medications received and procedures performed were also significantly higher in dogs with ulcers than dogs without ulcers. Dogs with a small skull (OR, 8.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 70.90) and dogs that received neurosurgery (OR, 21.12; 95% CI, 5.77 to 77.25) were more susceptible to development of corneal ulcers. Also, postoperative application of a fentanyl patch was a risk factor for development of corneal ulcers (OR, 4.53; 95% CI, 1.05 to 19.60).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Several risk factors were identified for development of corneal ulcers after nonocular surgery was performed with general anesthesia in dogs. Perioperative eye protection strategies and postoperative ophthalmic examination are needed to reduce the occurrence of corneal ulcers and their progression, especially for high-risk dogs and procedures.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for development of corneal ulcers after nonocular surgery performed with general anesthesia in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—14 dogs with development of corneal ulcers after nonocular surgery and 718 control dogs.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs evaluated at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of Seoul National University from January 2009 to June 2011 were reviewed for assessment of risk factors for development of corneal ulcers.

Results—Among the 732 reviewed cases, 14 (1.9%) dogs of 6 breeds developed a corneal ulcer after nonocular surgery. Duration of anesthesia was significantly longer in dogs with ulcers than dogs without ulcers. The number of medications received and procedures performed were also significantly higher in dogs with ulcers than dogs without ulcers. Dogs with a small skull (OR, 8.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 70.90) and dogs that received neurosurgery (OR, 21.12; 95% CI, 5.77 to 77.25) were more susceptible to development of corneal ulcers. Also, postoperative application of a fentanyl patch was a risk factor for development of corneal ulcers (OR, 4.53; 95% CI, 1.05 to 19.60).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Several risk factors were identified for development of corneal ulcers after nonocular surgery was performed with general anesthesia in dogs. Perioperative eye protection strategies and postoperative ophthalmic examination are needed to reduce the occurrence of corneal ulcers and their progression, especially for high-risk dogs and procedures.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Park's present address is Daegu Animal Medical Center, 36 Dongdaegu-ro, Suseong-gu, Daegu 706-842, Korea.

Dr. Jeong's present address is Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

Supported by the BK21 Program and Research Institute for Veterinary Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Korea, and in part by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (KRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2011-0007777 and 2012-0002638).

Address correspondence to Dr. Lee (inhyunglee@snu.ac.kr).