• 1. Kruth SA, Feldman EC, Kennedy PC. Insulin-secreting islet cell tumors: establishing a diagnosis and the clinical course for 25 dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1982; 181:5458.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Mehlhaff CJ, Peterson ME, Patnaik AK, et al. Insulin-producing islet cell neoplasms: surgical considerations and general management in 35 dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1985; 21:607612.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Robben JH, Pollak YW, Kirpensteijn J, et al. Comparison of ultrasonography, computed tomography, and single-photon emission computed tomography for the detection and localization of canine insulinoma. J Vet Intern Med 2005; 19:1522.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Caywood DD, Klausner JS, O'Leary TP, et al. Pancreatic insulin-secreting neoplasms: clinical, diagnostic and prognostic features in 73 dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1988; 24:577584.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Leifer CE, Peterson ME, Matus RE. Insulin-secreting tumor: diagnosis and medical and surgical management in 55 dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1986; 188:6064.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Steiner JM, Bruyette DS. Canine insulinoma. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 1996; 18:1323.

  • 7. Tobin RL, Nelson RW, Lucroy MD, et al. Outcome of surgical versus medical treatment of dogs with beta cell neoplasia: 39 cases (1990–1997). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999; 215:226230.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Mai W, Caceres AV. Dual-phase computed tomographic angiography in three dogs with pancreatic insulinoma. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2008; 49:141148.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Obuz F, Bora S, Sarioglu S. Malignant islet cell tumor of the pancreas associated with portal venous thrombus. Eur Radiol 2001; 11:16421644.

  • 10. Massari F, Nicoli S, Romanelli G, et al. Adrenalectomy in dogs with adrenal gland tumors: 52 cases (2002–2008). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2011; 239:216221.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Giannelli G, Pierri F, Trerotoli P, et al. Occurrence of portal vein tumor thrombus in hepatocellular carcinoma affects prognosis and survival: a retrospective study of 150 cases. Hepatol Res 2002; 24:50.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Kyles AE, Feldman EC, De Cock HEV, et al. Surgical management of adrenal gland tumors with and without associated tumor thrombi in dogs: 40 cases (1994–2001). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003; 223:654662.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Martínez-Salamanca JI, Huang WC, Millán I, et al. Prognostic impact of the 2009 UICC/AJCC TNM staging system for renal cell carcinoma with venous extension. Eur Urol 2011; 59:120127.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Saridomichelakis MN, Koutinas CK, Souftas V, et al. Extensive caudal vena cava thrombosis secondary to a unilateral renal tubular cell carcinoma in a dog. J Small Anim Pract 2004; 45:108112.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Dunn JK, Bostock DE, Herrtage ME, et al. Insulin-secreting tumours of the canine pancreas: clinical and pathological features of 11 cases. J Small Anim Pract 1993; 34:325331.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Polton GA, White RN, Brearley MJ, et al. Improved survival in a retrospective cohort of 28 dogs with insulinoma. J Small Anim Pract 2007; 48:151156.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Owen LN. TMN classification of tumors in domestic animals. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1980;29.

  • 18. Feldman EC, Nelson RW. Beta-cell neoplasia: insulinoma. In: Canine and feline endocrinology and reproduction. 3rd ed. St Louis: Saunders, 1996;634635.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Evans HE, de Lahunta A. The abdomen, pelvis and pelvic limb. In: Miller's guide to the dissection of the dog. 4th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1996;208211.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Smith MM, Waldron DR. Approach to the pancreas. In: Atlas of approaches for general surgery of the dog and cat. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1993;190192.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Fossum TW, Hedland CS, Hulse DA, et al. Surgery of the endocrine system. In: Small animal surgery. St Louis: Mosby, 1997;414418.

  • 22. Cohen TA, Nelson RW, Kass PH, et al. Evaluation of six portable blood glucose meters for measuring blood glucose concentration in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2009; 235:276280.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Garden OA, Claude Reubi J, Dykes NL, et al. Somatostatin receptor imaging in vivo by planar scintigraphy facilitates the diagnosis of canine insulinomas. J Vet Intern Med 2005; 19:168176.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Lamb CR, Simpson KW, Boswood A, et al. Ultrasonography of pancreatic neoplasia in the dog: a retrospective review of 16 cases. Vet Rec 1995; 137:6568.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Robben JH, Visser-Wisselaar HA, Rutteman GR, et al. In vitro and in vivo detection of functional somatostatin receptors in canine insulinomas. J Nucl Med 1997; 38:10361042.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Tumor thrombus formation in two dogs with insulinomas

Lydia E. HambrookDepartment of Internal Medicine, Melbourne Veterinary Specialist Centre, 70 Blackburn Rd, Glen Waverley, VIC 3150, Australia.

Search for other papers by Lydia E. Hambrook in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 BVSc
and
Simon T. KudnigDepartment of Surgery, Melbourne Veterinary Specialist Centre, 70 Blackburn Rd, Glen Waverley, VIC 3150, Australia.

Search for other papers by Simon T. Kudnig in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 BVSc, MVS, MS, DACVS

Abstract

Case Description—A 9-year-old sexually intact male Staffordshire Bull Terrier and a 9-year-old neutered male Boxer were evaluated for intermittent neurologic signs including muscle tremors, ataxia, episodic collapse, disorientation, and seizures.

Clinical Findings—Both dogs had low blood glucose and high serum insulin concentrations. Results of abdominal ultrasonography were unremarkable for both dogs. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a mass that extended from the body of the pancreas into the pancreaticoduodenal vein in each dog.

Treatment and Outcome—Marginal resection of pancreatic masses was performed, and tumor thrombi were removed via venotomy in both dogs. Histologic evaluation indicated the masses were pancreatic islet cell tumors with tumor thrombi. Clinical signs resolved following surgical resection of tumors and tumor thrombi, and the dogs were euglycemic during the follow-up period (17 and 45 months after surgery).

Clinical Relevance—Although gross tumor thrombus formation has been identified in humans with insulinomas, tumor thrombi have not been previously reported for dogs with insulinomas. Surgical removal of tumor thrombi via venotomy seemed to be well tolerated by the dogs. Tumor thrombus formation did not seem to adversely affect prognosis for the 2 dogs of this report.

Abstract

Case Description—A 9-year-old sexually intact male Staffordshire Bull Terrier and a 9-year-old neutered male Boxer were evaluated for intermittent neurologic signs including muscle tremors, ataxia, episodic collapse, disorientation, and seizures.

Clinical Findings—Both dogs had low blood glucose and high serum insulin concentrations. Results of abdominal ultrasonography were unremarkable for both dogs. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a mass that extended from the body of the pancreas into the pancreaticoduodenal vein in each dog.

Treatment and Outcome—Marginal resection of pancreatic masses was performed, and tumor thrombi were removed via venotomy in both dogs. Histologic evaluation indicated the masses were pancreatic islet cell tumors with tumor thrombi. Clinical signs resolved following surgical resection of tumors and tumor thrombi, and the dogs were euglycemic during the follow-up period (17 and 45 months after surgery).

Clinical Relevance—Although gross tumor thrombus formation has been identified in humans with insulinomas, tumor thrombi have not been previously reported for dogs with insulinomas. Surgical removal of tumor thrombi via venotomy seemed to be well tolerated by the dogs. Tumor thrombus formation did not seem to adversely affect prognosis for the 2 dogs of this report.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Hambrook (red_lyds@yahoo.com.au).