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Baclofen toxicosis in dogs and cats: 145 cases (2004–2010)

Roxanna KhorzadSection of Emergency and Critical Care, Angell Animal Medical Center, 350 S Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02130.

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Justine A. LeePet Poison Helpline, 3600 American Blvd W, Ste 725, Bloomington, MN 55431.

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Megan WhelanSection of Emergency and Critical Care, Angell Animal Medical Center, 350 S Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02130.

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Ahna G. BrutlagPet Poison Helpline, 3600 American Blvd W, Ste 725, Bloomington, MN 55431.

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Elizabeth P. MartinGeorgia Veterinary Specialists, 455 Abernathy Rd, Atlanta, GA 30328.

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Lee T. MiyaharaCenter for Animal Referral and Emergency Services, 2010 Cabot Blvd, W Ste D, Langhorne, PA 19047.

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Lynn R. HovdaPet Poison Helpline, 3600 American Blvd W, Ste 725, Bloomington, MN 55431.

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Abstract

Objective—To identify dogs and cats with baclofen toxicosis and characterize the patient population, clinical signs, and outcome.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—140 dogs and 5 cats with baclofen toxicosis.

Procedures—An animal poison control center electronic database was reviewed from November 2004 through April 2010 to identify dogs and cats with baclofen toxicosis. Information on signalment, clinical signs, and amount of baclofen ingested was obtained. Clinical signs were categorized as CNS, gastrointestinal, general malaise, cardiovascular, respiratory, or urogenital. Follow-up communications were performed to determine overall outcome.

Results—Dogs had a median age of 0.67 years (range, 0.1 to 15 years) and cats of 1 year (range, 0.7 to 16 years). Of 145 patients, 133 (92%) developed clinical signs of baclofen toxicosis. A total of 259 signs fell within defined categories: CNS (121/259 [46.7%]), gastrointestinal (69/259 [26.6%]), general malaise (27/259 [10.4%]), cardiovascular (23/259 [8.9%]), respiratory (14/259 [5.4%]), and urogenital (5/259 [1.9%]). For 68 dogs with known survival status, survival rate was 83.8% (57/68); of these dogs, the amount of baclofen ingested was known for 53 (46 survivors and 7 nonsurvivors). Amount of baclofen ingested was significantly lower in survivor dogs (median, 4.2 mg/kg [1.91 mg/lb]; range, 0.61 to 61 mg/kg [0.28 to 27.7 mg/lb]), compared with nonsurvivor dogs (median, 14 mg/kg [6.4 mg/lb]; range, 2.3 to 52.3 mg/kg [1.04 to 23.77 mg/lb]. Of 5 cats, 2 survived, 1 died, and 2 had unknown outcomes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Clinical signs of baclofen toxicosis occurred in most patients, with the CNS being the system most commonly affected.

Abstract

Objective—To identify dogs and cats with baclofen toxicosis and characterize the patient population, clinical signs, and outcome.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—140 dogs and 5 cats with baclofen toxicosis.

Procedures—An animal poison control center electronic database was reviewed from November 2004 through April 2010 to identify dogs and cats with baclofen toxicosis. Information on signalment, clinical signs, and amount of baclofen ingested was obtained. Clinical signs were categorized as CNS, gastrointestinal, general malaise, cardiovascular, respiratory, or urogenital. Follow-up communications were performed to determine overall outcome.

Results—Dogs had a median age of 0.67 years (range, 0.1 to 15 years) and cats of 1 year (range, 0.7 to 16 years). Of 145 patients, 133 (92%) developed clinical signs of baclofen toxicosis. A total of 259 signs fell within defined categories: CNS (121/259 [46.7%]), gastrointestinal (69/259 [26.6%]), general malaise (27/259 [10.4%]), cardiovascular (23/259 [8.9%]), respiratory (14/259 [5.4%]), and urogenital (5/259 [1.9%]). For 68 dogs with known survival status, survival rate was 83.8% (57/68); of these dogs, the amount of baclofen ingested was known for 53 (46 survivors and 7 nonsurvivors). Amount of baclofen ingested was significantly lower in survivor dogs (median, 4.2 mg/kg [1.91 mg/lb]; range, 0.61 to 61 mg/kg [0.28 to 27.7 mg/lb]), compared with nonsurvivor dogs (median, 14 mg/kg [6.4 mg/lb]; range, 2.3 to 52.3 mg/kg [1.04 to 23.77 mg/lb]. Of 5 cats, 2 survived, 1 died, and 2 had unknown outcomes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Clinical signs of baclofen toxicosis occurred in most patients, with the CNS being the system most commonly affected.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Khorzad (rkhorzad@mspca.org).