• 1. Schwartz SG, Mitchell SL, Keating JH, et al. Liver lobe torsion in dogs: 13 cases (1995–2004). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006; 228:242247.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Swann HM, Brown DC. Hepatic lobe torsion in 3 dogs and a cat. Vet Surg 2001; 30:482486.

  • 3. Downs MO, Miller MA, Cross AR, et al. Liver lobe torsion and liver abscess in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998; 212:678680.

  • 4. Sonnenfield JM, Armbrust LJ, Radlinsky MA, et al. Radiographic and ultrasonographic findings of liver lobe torsion in a dog. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2001; 42:344346.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Tomlinson J, Black A. Liver lobe torsion in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1983; 183:225226.

  • 6. von Pfeil DJ, Jutkowitz LA, Hauptman J. Left lateral and left middle liver lobe torsion in a Saint Bernard puppy. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2006; 42:381385.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Wilson RB, Holscher MA, Sly DL. Liver lobe torsion in a rabbit. Lab Anim Sci 1987; 37:506507.

  • 8. Warns-Petit ES. Liver lobe torsion in an Oriental small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinerea). Vet Rec 2001; 148:212213.

  • 9. Morin M, Sauvageau R, Phaneuf JB, et al. Torsion of abdominal organs in sows: a report of 36 cases. Can Vet J 1984; 25:440442.

  • 10. Hamir AN. Torsion of the liver in a sow. Vet Rec 1980; 106:362363.

  • 11. Turner TA, Brown CA, Wilson JH, et al. Hepatic lobe torsion as a cause of colic in a horse. Vet Surg 1993; 22:301304.

  • 12. Bentz KJ, Burgess BA, Lohmann KL, et al. Hepatic lobe torsion in a horse. Can Vet J 2009; 50:283286.

  • 13. Khan AM, Hundal R, Manzoor K, et al. Accessory liver lobes: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge of their torsions. Scand J Gastroenterol 2006; 41:125130.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Sisson S, Grossman JD. The anatomy of domestic animals. 4th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1953.

  • 15. Tate PS. Hepatic torsion and dislocation with hypotension and colonic obstruction. Am Surg 1993; 59:455458.

  • 16. Niza MM, Ferreira AJ, Peleteiro MC, et al. Bacteriological study of the liver in dogs. J Small Anim Pract 2004; 45:401404.

  • 17. Smith LD, Jasmin AM. The recovery of Clostridium hemolyticum from the livers and kidneys of apparently normal cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1956; 129:6871.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Oaks JL, Kanaly ST, Fisher TJ, et al. Apparent Clostridium haemolyticum/Clostridium novyi infection and exotoxemia in two horses. J Vet Diagn Invest 1997; 9:324325.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. McConkey S, Briggs C, Solano M, et al. Liver torsion and associated bacterial peritonitis in a dog. Can Vet J 1997; 38:438439.

  • 20. Reef VB. Equine diagnostic ultrasound. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1998.

  • 21. Sugo H, Mikami Y, Matsumoto F, et al. Hepatic resection using the harmonic scalpel. Surg Today 2000; 30:959962.

  • 22. Romano F, Franciosi C, Caprotti R, et al. Hepatic surgery using the Ligasure vessel sealing system. World J Surg 2005; 29:110112.

  • 23. Southwood LL, Russell G. The use of clinical findings in the identification of equine peritonitis cases that respond favorably to medical therapy. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2007; 17:382390.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Liver lobe torsion in six horses

Brett S. Tennent-BrownDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802.

Search for other papers by Brett S. Tennent-Brown in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 BVSc, MS, DACVIM, DACVECC
,
Margaret C. MudgeDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43017.

Search for other papers by Margaret C. Mudge in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 VMD, DACVS, DACVECC
,
Joanne HardyDepartment of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77801.

Search for other papers by Joanne Hardy in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD, DACVS, DACVECC
,
Dorothy D. WhelchelDepartment of Large Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.

Search for other papers by Dorothy D. Whelchel in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MS
,
David E. FreemanDepartment of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL32611.

Search for other papers by David E. Freeman in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 MVB, phd, DACVS
, and
A. T. Fischer JrChino Valley Equine Hospital, 2945 English Pl, Chino Hills, CA 91709.

Search for other papers by A. T. Fischer Jr in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, DACVS

Abstract

Case Description—6 horses were determined to have torsion of a liver lobe at 4 referral institutions over a 21-year period.

Clinical Findings—Clinical findings were nonspecific but often included signs of marked inflammation. Two of the 6 horses were examined because of colic, and 2 were assessed because of peritonitis that failed to respond to treatment; the remaining 2 horses were examined because of nonspecific clinical signs that included inappetence, lethargy, and weight loss. The results of laboratory tests were widely variable, and values for liver enzyme activities were typically within reference limits or only mildly increased. Most affected horses had markedly increased peritoneal nucleated cell counts.

Treatment and Outcome—Exploratory laparotomy and resection of the affected liver lobe was performed in 5 horses. Three of those patients survived to discharge.

Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that diagnosis of liver lobe torsion in horses may be difficult because clinical signs and results of laboratory testing are nonspecific and variable. Most affected horses had markedly abnormal peritoneal fluid. The prognosis for hepatic lobe torsion can be good, and early surgical correction is expected to improve outcome.

Abstract

Case Description—6 horses were determined to have torsion of a liver lobe at 4 referral institutions over a 21-year period.

Clinical Findings—Clinical findings were nonspecific but often included signs of marked inflammation. Two of the 6 horses were examined because of colic, and 2 were assessed because of peritonitis that failed to respond to treatment; the remaining 2 horses were examined because of nonspecific clinical signs that included inappetence, lethargy, and weight loss. The results of laboratory tests were widely variable, and values for liver enzyme activities were typically within reference limits or only mildly increased. Most affected horses had markedly increased peritoneal nucleated cell counts.

Treatment and Outcome—Exploratory laparotomy and resection of the affected liver lobe was performed in 5 horses. Three of those patients survived to discharge.

Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that diagnosis of liver lobe torsion in horses may be difficult because clinical signs and results of laboratory testing are nonspecific and variable. Most affected horses had markedly abnormal peritoneal fluid. The prognosis for hepatic lobe torsion can be good, and early surgical correction is expected to improve outcome.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Tennent-Brown's present address is the Equine Centre, Veterinary Clinic and Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3030, Australia.

Address correspondence to Dr. Tennent-Brown (brett.tennent@unimelb.edu.au).