• 1.

    Fowler ME. Digestive system. In: Medicine and surgery of South American camelids: llama, alpaca, vicuña, guanaco. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1998; 305359.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Niehaus AJ, Anderson DE. Tooth root abscesses in llamas and alpacas: 123 cases (1994–2005). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007; 231: 284289.

  • 3.

    Ingham B. Abattoir survey of dental defects in cull cows. Vet Rec 2001; 148: 739742.

  • 4.

    Andrews AH. Anatomy of the oral cavity, eruption and developmental abnormalities in ruminants. In: Harvey CE, ed. Veterinary dentistry. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1985; 235255.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Andrews AH. Acquired diseases of the teeth and mouth in ruminants. In: Harvey CE, ed. Veterinary dentistry. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1985; 256271.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

What Is Your Diagnosis?

Matthew L. Stock VMD1, Marie-Eve Fecteau DVM, DACVIM2, Jonathan R. O. Garber VMD, DABVP3, Jennifer A. Reetz DVM, DACVIM, DACVR4, and Billy I. Smith DVM, MS, DABVP5
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Clinical Studies-New Bolton Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Kennett Square, PA 19348.
  • | 2 Department of Clinical Studies-New Bolton Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Kennett Square, PA 19348.
  • | 3 Department of Clinical Studies-New Bolton Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Kennett Square, PA 19348.
  • | 4 Department of Clinical Studies-Philadelphia, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
  • | 5 Department of Clinical Studies-New Bolton Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Kennett Square, PA 19348.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Stock (mstock@vet.upenn.edu).