Gastroesophageal reflux and laryngeal dysfunction in a dog

Cassie N. Lux Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762.

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Todd M. Archer Department of Small Animal Internal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762.

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Kari V. Lunsford Department of Small Animal Internal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762.

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Abstract

Case Description—A 7-year-old neutered male Saint Bernard was evaluated because of a 6-month history of coughing, gagging, change in phonation, excessive panting, and chronic intermittent vomiting and diarrhea.

Clinical Findings—Physical examination revealed no remarkable findings other than panting. Total thyroxine concentration and results of a CBC, serum biochemistry analysis, urinalysis, and thoracic radiography were within reference limits. A laryngeal examination revealed edema, erythema, and ulceration of the larynx and pharynx, with normal laryngeal movement. Results of bronchoscopy and cytologic examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were diagnostic only for distal tracheitis. Esophagoscopy and an esophagography revealed esophagitis consistent with gastroesophageal reflux. Gastroduodenoscopy and histologic examination of biopsy specimens revealed Helicobacter colonization and lymphocytic or plasmacytic enteritis.

Treatment and Outcome—Following treatment for gastroesophageal reflux and suspected Helicobacter infection with combination antacid and antimicrobial treatment, the dog's respiratory signs resolved but vomiting continued. Gastroduodenoscopy revealed complete resolution of the previous laryngitis, pharyngitis, and esophagitis. Treatment for the lymphocytic or plasmacytic enteritis was initiated with prednisone (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) and a novel protein diet. The previous treatment was also continued. Complete resolution of clinical signs was maintained 4 months after initiation of appropriate treatment.

Clinical Relevance—Laryngeal dysfunction induced by gastroesophageal reflux as occurred in the patient described in this report is a previously undocumented association in the veterinary literature. This association could be a potential consideration in dogs with concurrent respiratory and gastrointestinal signs. The present report may provide a basis for further studies investigating this association.

Abstract

Case Description—A 7-year-old neutered male Saint Bernard was evaluated because of a 6-month history of coughing, gagging, change in phonation, excessive panting, and chronic intermittent vomiting and diarrhea.

Clinical Findings—Physical examination revealed no remarkable findings other than panting. Total thyroxine concentration and results of a CBC, serum biochemistry analysis, urinalysis, and thoracic radiography were within reference limits. A laryngeal examination revealed edema, erythema, and ulceration of the larynx and pharynx, with normal laryngeal movement. Results of bronchoscopy and cytologic examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were diagnostic only for distal tracheitis. Esophagoscopy and an esophagography revealed esophagitis consistent with gastroesophageal reflux. Gastroduodenoscopy and histologic examination of biopsy specimens revealed Helicobacter colonization and lymphocytic or plasmacytic enteritis.

Treatment and Outcome—Following treatment for gastroesophageal reflux and suspected Helicobacter infection with combination antacid and antimicrobial treatment, the dog's respiratory signs resolved but vomiting continued. Gastroduodenoscopy revealed complete resolution of the previous laryngitis, pharyngitis, and esophagitis. Treatment for the lymphocytic or plasmacytic enteritis was initiated with prednisone (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) and a novel protein diet. The previous treatment was also continued. Complete resolution of clinical signs was maintained 4 months after initiation of appropriate treatment.

Clinical Relevance—Laryngeal dysfunction induced by gastroesophageal reflux as occurred in the patient described in this report is a previously undocumented association in the veterinary literature. This association could be a potential consideration in dogs with concurrent respiratory and gastrointestinal signs. The present report may provide a basis for further studies investigating this association.

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