• 1.

    Zubrod CJ, Schneider RK, Tucker RL. Use of magnetic resonance imaging to identify suspensory desmitis and adhesions between exostoses of the second metacarpal bone and the suspensory ligament in four horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004; 224:18151820.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Honnas CM. Surgical treatment of selected musculoskeletal disorders of the forelimb. In: Auer JA, ed. Equine surgery. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1992;9851051.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Pool RR. Tumors of bone and cartilage. In: Moulton JE, ed. Tumors in domestic animals. 3rd ed. Berkeley, Calif: University of California Press, 1990;181195.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Nixon AJ, Schachter BL, Pool RR. Exostoses of the caudal perimeter of the radial physis as a cause of carpal synovial sheath tenosynovitis and lameness in horses: 10 cases (1999–2003). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004; 224:264270.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Secombe CJ, Anderson BH. Diagnosis and treatment of an osteochondroma of the distal tibia in a 3-year-old horse. Aust Vet J 2000; 78:1618.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Kold SE, Ostblom JC, Philipsen HP. Headshaking caused by a maxillary osteoma in a horse. Equine Vet J 1982; 14:167169.

  • 7.

    Schumacher J, Smith BL, Morgan SJ. Osteoma of paranasal sinuses of a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1988; 192:14491450.

  • 8.

    Scotty NC, Ford M, Williams F, et al. Exophthalmia associated with paranasal sinus osteoma in a Quarterhorse mare. J Vet Diagn Invest 2004; 16:155160.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Orsini JA, Baird DK, Ruggles AJ. Radiotherapy of a recurrent ossifying fibroma in the paranasal sinuses of a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004; 224:14831486.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Richardson DW, Acland HM. Multilobular osteoma (chondroma rodens) in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1983; 182:289291.

  • 11.

    Collins JA. Ossifying fibroma/osteoma in the proximal tibia of a mature gelding. Vet Rec 1998; 143:367368.

  • 12.

    American Association of Equine Practitioners. Definition and classification of lameness. In: Guide for veterinary service and judging of equestrian events. 4th ed. Lexington, Ky: American Association of Equine Practitioners, 1991;19.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Denoix JM, Tapprest J. Anesthésies sémiologiques nerveuses tronculaires dans le diagnostic des boiteries chez le cheval: 2ème partie. Point Vet 1992; 24:7186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Bassage LH, Ross MW. Diagnosis of lameness. In: Ross MW, Dyson SJ, eds. Diagnosis and management of lameness in the horse. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 2003;93124.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Brokken MT, Schneider RK, Sampson SN, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging features of proximal metacarpal and metatarsal injuries in the horse. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2007; 48:507517.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Denoix JM, Audigie F. Imaging of the musculoskeletal system in horses. In: Hinchcliff KW, Kaneps AJ, Geor RJ, eds. Equine sports medicine and surgery. Basic and clinical sciences of the equine athlete. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 2004;161187.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Coudry V, Denoix JM, Didierlaurent D, et al. Use of magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose the cause of proximal metacarpal pain in a standardbred trotter. Vet Rec 2008; 162:790792.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Dyson SJ, Martinelli MJ. Image description and interpretation in musculoskeletal scintigraphy. In: Dyson SJ, Plilworth RC, Twardock AR, et al, eds. Equine scintigraphy. Fordham, Cambridgeshire, England: Equine Veterinary Journal Ltd, 2003;8796.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Dyson SJ. The metacarpal region. In: Ross MW, Dyson SJ, eds. Diagnosis and management of lameness in the horse. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 2003;362376.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Chambers MD, Martinelli MJ, Baker GJ, et al. Nuclear medicine for diagnosis of lameness in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1995; 206:792796.

  • 21.

    Kenzora KT, Wagner von Matthiessen P, Sheehan RM. A uniquely located solitary plantar tibial osteochondroma in a Thoroughbred racehorse. Equine Pract 1995; 17:2325.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Welch RD, Auer JA, Watkins JP, et al. Surgical treatment of tarsal sheath effusion associated with an exostosis on the calcaneus of a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1990; 196:19921994.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Chan CCH, Munroe GA, Callanan JJ. Congenital solitary osteochondroma affecting the tarsus in a filly foal. Equine Vet Educ 1996; 8:153156.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Squire KRE, Adams SB, Widmer WR, et al. Arthroscopic removal of a palmar radial osteochondroma causing carpal canal syndrome in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1992; 201:12161218.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Denoix JM. The equine fetlock. In: Denoix J-M, ed. The equine distal limb: an atlas of clinical anatomy and comparative imaging. London: Manson Publishing, 2001;243373.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Held JP, Patton CS, Shires M. Solitary osteochondroma of the radius in three horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1988; 193:563564.

  • 27.

    Bassage LH. Metacarpus/metatarsus. In: Hinchcliff KW, Kaneps AJ, Geor RJ, eds. Equine sports medicine and surgery. Basic and clinical sciences of the equine athlete. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 2004;319348.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Exostoses on the palmar or plantar aspect of the diaphysis of the third metacarpal or metatarsal bone in horses: 16 cases (2001–2010)

View More View Less
  • 1 CIRALE, Université Paris-Est, Ecole Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 14430 Goustranville, France; and INRA, USC BPLC 957, 94704 Maisons-Alfort, France.
  • | 2 CIRALE, Université Paris-Est, Ecole Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 14430 Goustranville, France; and INRA, USC BPLC 957, 94704 Maisons-Alfort, France.
  • | 3 CIRALE, Université Paris-Est, Ecole Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 14430 Goustranville, France; and INRA, USC BPLC 957, 94704 Maisons-Alfort, France.
  • | 4 CIRALE, Université Paris-Est, Ecole Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 14430 Goustranville, France; and INRA, USC BPLC 957, 94704 Maisons-Alfort, France.
  • | 5 CIRALE, Université Paris-Est, Ecole Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 14430 Goustranville, France; and INRA, USC BPLC 957, 94704 Maisons-Alfort, France.

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the clinical features, diagnostic procedures, treatment, and outcome for horses with an exostosis on the palmar or plantar cortex of the third metacarpal bone (MC3) or third metatarsal bone (MT3).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—16 horses.

Procedures—Records from 2001 through 2010 were evaluated to identify horses with radiographic and ultrasonographic evidence of an exostosis on an MC3 or MT3. Signalment, history, lameness examination results, diagnostic imaging results, surgical and histopathologic findings, treatment, and outcome were evaluated.

Results—9 horses (group A) had unilateral lameness of the exostosis-affected limb that was alleviated with local or perineural analgesia. Seven horses (group B) had inconsistent lameness of the affected limb. The exostosis was located between the middle and distal third of the MC3 or MT3 in all horses. Desmopathy or peritendinous fibrosis (or both) of the suspensory ligament at the exostosis site was identified in 6 horses. All horses in group A returned to full function after conservative or surgical management. Lameness did not recur in any of the horses in group B despite no treatment or only conservative management.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Exostosis of the palmar cortex of an MC3 or plantar cortex of an MT3 should be considered as a cause of lameness in horses. The diagnosis can be made by the use of radiography and ultrasonography combined with specific diagnostic analgesia. Prognosis for return to athletic activity can be good but should be modified contingent on concurrent desmopathy of the suspensory ligament.

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the clinical features, diagnostic procedures, treatment, and outcome for horses with an exostosis on the palmar or plantar cortex of the third metacarpal bone (MC3) or third metatarsal bone (MT3).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—16 horses.

Procedures—Records from 2001 through 2010 were evaluated to identify horses with radiographic and ultrasonographic evidence of an exostosis on an MC3 or MT3. Signalment, history, lameness examination results, diagnostic imaging results, surgical and histopathologic findings, treatment, and outcome were evaluated.

Results—9 horses (group A) had unilateral lameness of the exostosis-affected limb that was alleviated with local or perineural analgesia. Seven horses (group B) had inconsistent lameness of the affected limb. The exostosis was located between the middle and distal third of the MC3 or MT3 in all horses. Desmopathy or peritendinous fibrosis (or both) of the suspensory ligament at the exostosis site was identified in 6 horses. All horses in group A returned to full function after conservative or surgical management. Lameness did not recur in any of the horses in group B despite no treatment or only conservative management.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Exostosis of the palmar cortex of an MC3 or plantar cortex of an MT3 should be considered as a cause of lameness in horses. The diagnosis can be made by the use of radiography and ultrasonography combined with specific diagnostic analgesia. Prognosis for return to athletic activity can be good but should be modified contingent on concurrent desmopathy of the suspensory ligament.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Forresu's present address is Clinique Vétérinaire des Capucines, 01000 Bourg en Bresse, France.

Supported by the Conseil Régional de Basse-Normandie, the European Parliament (European Regional Development Funds), and the Pôle de Compétitivité Filière Equine.

The authors thank Drs. S. Lenormand, O. Geffroy, M. Pechayre, and R. Perrin for assistance with the surgical treatments.

Address correspondence to Dr. Bertoni (lbertoni@vet-alfort.fr).