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Mucosal immune response in newborn Holstein calves that had maternally derived antibodies and were vaccinated with an intranasal multivalent modified-live virus vaccine

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  • 1 Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health, 56 Livingston Ave, Roseland, NJ 07068.
  • | 2 Summit Research, 1246 W 3200, South Preston, ID 83263.
  • | 3 VIDO/Intervac, University of Saskachewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E3, Canada.
  • | 4 Department of Large Animal Clinical Services, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskachewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E3, Canada.
  • | 5 VIDO/Intervac, University of Saskachewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E3, Canada.
  • | 6 Department of Large Animal Clinical Services, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskachewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E3, Canada.
  • | 7 VIDO/Intervac, University of Saskachewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E3, Canada.
  • | 8 School of Public Health, University of Saskachewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E3, Canada.

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether maternally derived antibodies interfere with the mucosal immune response following intranasal (IN) vaccination of newborn calves with a multivalent modified-live virus vaccine.

Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.

Animals—23 newborn Holstein bull calves.

Procedures—Calves received colostrum and were assigned to group A (unvaccinated control calves), group B (IN vaccination on day 0), or group C (IN vaccination on days 0 and 35). Serum and nasal secretion sample (NSS) titers of antibodies specific for bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, and bovine viral diarrhea virus 2; WBC counts; and NSS interferon concentrations were determined up to day 77.

Results—Calves had high serum titers of maternally derived antibodies specific for vaccine virus antigens on day 0. High IgA and low IgG titers were detected in NSSs on day 0; NSS titers of IgA decreased by day 5. Group B and C NSS IgA titers were significantly higher than those of group A on days 10 through 35; group C IgA titers increased after the second vaccination. Serum antibody titers decreased at a similar rate among groups of calves. Interferons were not detected in NSSs, and calves did not develop leukopenia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IN vaccination of newborn calves with high concentrations of virus-neutralizing antibodies increased NSS IgA titers but did not change serum antibody titers. Revaccination of group C calves on day 35 induced IgA production. Intranasal vaccination with a modified-live virus vaccine was effective in calves that had maternally derived antibodies.

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether maternally derived antibodies interfere with the mucosal immune response following intranasal (IN) vaccination of newborn calves with a multivalent modified-live virus vaccine.

Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.

Animals—23 newborn Holstein bull calves.

Procedures—Calves received colostrum and were assigned to group A (unvaccinated control calves), group B (IN vaccination on day 0), or group C (IN vaccination on days 0 and 35). Serum and nasal secretion sample (NSS) titers of antibodies specific for bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, and bovine viral diarrhea virus 2; WBC counts; and NSS interferon concentrations were determined up to day 77.

Results—Calves had high serum titers of maternally derived antibodies specific for vaccine virus antigens on day 0. High IgA and low IgG titers were detected in NSSs on day 0; NSS titers of IgA decreased by day 5. Group B and C NSS IgA titers were significantly higher than those of group A on days 10 through 35; group C IgA titers increased after the second vaccination. Serum antibody titers decreased at a similar rate among groups of calves. Interferons were not detected in NSSs, and calves did not develop leukopenia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IN vaccination of newborn calves with high concentrations of virus-neutralizing antibodies increased NSS IgA titers but did not change serum antibody titers. Revaccination of group C calves on day 35 induced IgA production. Intranasal vaccination with a modified-live virus vaccine was effective in calves that had maternally derived antibodies.

Contributor Notes

Supported by Intervet/Schering-Plough. Doctor Griebel is a Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)–funded Tier I Canada Research Chair in Neonatal Mucosal Immunology.

Presented as an oral presentation at the 26th World Buiatrics Congress, Santiago, Chile, November 2010.

The authors thank Donna Dent for development and performance of ELISAs and Dixie Hunsaker for assistance with collection, preparation, and distribution of biological samples.

Address correspondence to Dr. Griebel (philip.griebel@usask.ca).