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Clinical and diagnostic imaging findings in dogs with zygomatic sialadenitis: 11 cases (1990–2009)

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  • 1 Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 2 Animal Eye Center Incorporated, 5175 Pacific St, Ste A, Rocklin, CA 95677.
  • | 3 Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 4 Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 5 Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 6 Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.

Abstract

Objective—To describe clinical and diagnostic imaging features of zygomatic sialadenitis in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—11 dogs with zygomatic sialadenitis and 20 control dogs without evidence of retrobulbar disease.

Procedures—Medical records were searched for dogs with zygomatic sialadenitis that underwent some combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and ultrasonography. Signalment, clinical signs, results of clinicopathologic tests, cytologic and histologic diagnosis, treatment, qualitative disease features, and disease course were recorded. Images obtained via MRI or CT were analyzed for pre- and postcontrast signal intensity or density, respectively; zygomatic salivary gland area was determined. Results were compared with those of control dogs that underwent the same imaging procedures (n = 10/method). Ultrasonographic images of affected dogs were assessed qualitatively.

Results—Most (9/11) affected dogs were medium- or large-breed males (mean age, 8 years) with unilateral disease. Affected dogs had clinical signs of retrobulbar disease and cytologic or histologic evidence of zygomatic sialadenitis. Sialoceles were detected in 7 affected glands. Compared with values for control dogs, MRI findings in affected dogs (n = 7) included gland enlargement, T1-weighted hypointensity, T2-weighted hyperintensity, and increased contrast enhancement; CT features in affected dogs (2) included gland enlargement and hypodensity on unenhanced images. Retrobulbar masses were identified via ultrasonography in 9 of 10 orbits examined, and zygomatic salivary gland origin was detected in 4.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Visualization of anatomic structures for diagnosis of zygomatic sialadenitis and evaluation of adjacent structures was excellent via MRI and CT Ultrasonography was less definitive but useful for sample collection.

Abstract

Objective—To describe clinical and diagnostic imaging features of zygomatic sialadenitis in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—11 dogs with zygomatic sialadenitis and 20 control dogs without evidence of retrobulbar disease.

Procedures—Medical records were searched for dogs with zygomatic sialadenitis that underwent some combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and ultrasonography. Signalment, clinical signs, results of clinicopathologic tests, cytologic and histologic diagnosis, treatment, qualitative disease features, and disease course were recorded. Images obtained via MRI or CT were analyzed for pre- and postcontrast signal intensity or density, respectively; zygomatic salivary gland area was determined. Results were compared with those of control dogs that underwent the same imaging procedures (n = 10/method). Ultrasonographic images of affected dogs were assessed qualitatively.

Results—Most (9/11) affected dogs were medium- or large-breed males (mean age, 8 years) with unilateral disease. Affected dogs had clinical signs of retrobulbar disease and cytologic or histologic evidence of zygomatic sialadenitis. Sialoceles were detected in 7 affected glands. Compared with values for control dogs, MRI findings in affected dogs (n = 7) included gland enlargement, T1-weighted hypointensity, T2-weighted hyperintensity, and increased contrast enhancement; CT features in affected dogs (2) included gland enlargement and hypodensity on unenhanced images. Retrobulbar masses were identified via ultrasonography in 9 of 10 orbits examined, and zygomatic salivary gland origin was detected in 4.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Visualization of anatomic structures for diagnosis of zygomatic sialadenitis and evaluation of adjacent structures was excellent via MRI and CT Ultrasonography was less definitive but useful for sample collection.

Contributor Notes

Supported by the Center for Imaging Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis.

Presented in abstract form at the Annual Scientific Meeting of the American College of Veterinary Radiology, Memphis, October 2009.

The authors thank Richard Larson, Jason Peters, Patrick Nichols, and Jen Harrison for technical assistance; Christopher Reilly for intellectual contributions and technical advice; and Laurel Beckett for assistance in statistical analysis.

Address correspondence to Dr. Cannon (cannon01ball@hotmail.com).