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Clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome of dogs with presumed primary hepatic lymphoma: 18 cases (1992–2008)

Gillian Dank DVM, DACVIM1, Kenneth M. Rassnick DVM, DACVIM2, Orna Kristal DVM, DACVIM3, Carlos O. Rodriguez Jr DVM, PhD, DACVIM4, Craig A. Clifford DVM, MS, DACVIM5, Rebecca Ward DVM6, Courtney L. Mallett DVM7, Tracy Gieger DVM, DACVIM, DACVR8, and Gilad Segev DVM9
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  • 1 School of Veterinary Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100, Israel.
  • | 2 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.
  • | 3 Chavat Daat Veterinary Specialty Center, Beit Berl, Kfar Saba 44905, Israel.
  • | 4 Department of Veterinary Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 5 Red Bank Veterinary Hospital, 197 Hance Ave, Tinton Falls, NJ 07724.
  • | 6 Red Bank Veterinary Hospital, 197 Hance Ave, Tinton Falls, NJ 07724.
  • | 7 Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.
  • | 8 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803.
  • | 9 School of Veterinary Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100, Israel.

Abstract

Objective—To determine outcome of dogs with presumed primary hepatic lymphoma treated with various multiagent, doxorubicin-based chemotherapeutic protocols and identify factors associated with prognosis.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—18 dogs with presumed primary hepatic lymphoma.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on signalment, treatment, and outcome.

Results—8 dogs had a complete remission (CR), with a median remission duration of 120 days. Dogs with leukocytosis, neutrophilia, hypoalbuminemia, hyperbilirubinemia, or a combination of hypoalbuminemia and hyperbilirubinemia were less likely to achieve a CR. Overall median survival time (MST) was 63 days (range, 2 to 402 days). In a multivariate analysis, response to treatment and serum albumin concentration were associated with MST. Dogs that did not achieve a CR had a significantly shorter MST than did dogs that did achieve a CR (13 vs 283 days, respectively). Dogs with serum albumin concentration < 2.5 g/dL at the time treatment was initiated had a significantly shorter MST than did dogs with serum albumin concentration within reference limits (10 vs 128 days, respectively). There was also a positive correlation between serum albumin concentration and survival time (r = 0.74).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that dogs with primary hepatic lymphoma that underwent chemotherapy had a poor prognosis, with a low response rate. Dogs that responded to treatment had a better prognosis, and dogs with hypoalbuminemia had a poorer prognosis.

Abstract

Objective—To determine outcome of dogs with presumed primary hepatic lymphoma treated with various multiagent, doxorubicin-based chemotherapeutic protocols and identify factors associated with prognosis.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—18 dogs with presumed primary hepatic lymphoma.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on signalment, treatment, and outcome.

Results—8 dogs had a complete remission (CR), with a median remission duration of 120 days. Dogs with leukocytosis, neutrophilia, hypoalbuminemia, hyperbilirubinemia, or a combination of hypoalbuminemia and hyperbilirubinemia were less likely to achieve a CR. Overall median survival time (MST) was 63 days (range, 2 to 402 days). In a multivariate analysis, response to treatment and serum albumin concentration were associated with MST. Dogs that did not achieve a CR had a significantly shorter MST than did dogs that did achieve a CR (13 vs 283 days, respectively). Dogs with serum albumin concentration < 2.5 g/dL at the time treatment was initiated had a significantly shorter MST than did dogs with serum albumin concentration within reference limits (10 vs 128 days, respectively). There was also a positive correlation between serum albumin concentration and survival time (r = 0.74).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that dogs with primary hepatic lymphoma that underwent chemotherapy had a poor prognosis, with a low response rate. Dogs that responded to treatment had a better prognosis, and dogs with hypoalbuminemia had a poorer prognosis.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Rassnick's present address is Veterinary Medical Center of Central New York, 5841 Bridge S, East Syracuse, NY 13057.

Dr. Ward's present address is Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.

Presented in part at the 28th Annual Conference of the Veterinary Cancer Society, Seattle, October 2008.

Address correspondence to Dr. Dank (dank@agri.huji.ac.il).