• 1.

    Carlson GP, Mansmann RA. Serum electrolyte and plasma protein alterations in horses used in endurance rides. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1974; 165:262264.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Carlson GP, Ocen PO, Harrold D. Clinicopathologic alterations in normal and exhausted endurance horses. Theriogenology 1976; 6:93104.

  • 3.

    Rose RJ, Ilkiw JE, Martin ICA. Blood-gas, acid-base and hematological values in horses during an endurance ride. Equine Vet J 1979; 11:5659.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Rose RJ, Purdue RA, Hensley W. Plasma biochemistry alterations in horses during an endurance ride. Equine Vet J 1977; 9:122126.

  • 5.

    Schott HC, Marlin DJ, Geor RJ, et al. Changes in selected physiological and laboratory measurements in elite horses competing in a 160 km endurance ride. Equine Vet J Suppl2006;(36):3742.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Robert C, Benamou-Smith A, Leclerc JL. Use of the recovery check in long-distance endurance rides. Equine Vet J Suppl2002;(34):106111.

  • 7.

    Barton MH, Williamson L, Jacks S, et al. Body weight, hematologic findings, and serum and plasma biochemical findings of horses competing in a 48-, 83-, or 159-km endurance ride under similar terrain and weather conditions. Am J Vet Res 2003; 64:746753.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Aguilera-Tejero E, Estepa JC, Lopez I, et al. Plasma ionized calcium and parathyroid hormone concentrations in horses after endurance rides. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001; 219:488490.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Haggett E, Magdesian KG, Maas J, et al. Whole blood selenium concentrations in endurance horses. Vet J 2010; 186:192196.

  • 10.

    Holbrook TC, Birks EK, Sleeper MM, et al. Endurance exercise is associated with increased plasma cardiac troponin I in horses. Equine Vet J Suppl2006;(36):2731.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Fielding CL, Magdesian KG, Rhodes DM, et al. Clinical and biochemical abnormalities in endurance horses eliminated from competition for medical complications and requiring emergency medical treatment: 30 cases (2005–2006). J Vet Emerg Vet Crit Care 2009; 19:473478.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Garlinghouse SE, Burrill MJ. Relationship of body condition score to completion rate during 160 km endurance races. Equine Vet J Suppl1999;(30):591595.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    American Endurance Ride Conference. Rider handbook. Available at: www.aerc.org/AERC_Rider_Handbook.pdf. Accessed Dec 12, 2009.

  • 14.

    Robert C, Benamou-Smith A, Leclerc JL. Use of the recovery check in long-distance endurance rides. Equine Vet J Suppl2002;(34):106111.

  • 15.

    American Endurance Ride Conference. Control judge handbook. Available at: www.aerc.org/upload/2009ControlJudgeHB.pdf. Accessed Dec 12, 2009.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    American Endurance Ride Conference. AERC records page. Available at: www.doublejoy.com/erol/Individual/HorseHistory.asp. Accessed Dec 12, 2009.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Obtaining robust variance estimates. In: STATA user's guide, release 10. College Station, Tex: Stata Press, 268273.

  • 18.

    Muñoz A, Riber C, Santisteban R, et al. Effect of training duration and exercise on blood-borne substrates, plasma lactate and enzyme concentrations in Andalusian, Anglo-Arabian and Arabian breeds. Equine Vet J Suppl2002;(34):245251.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Nielsen BD, Turner KK, Ventura BA, et al. Racing speeds of Quarter Horses, Thoroughbreds and Arabians. Equine Vet J Suppl2006;(36):128132.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Barrey E, Mucher E, Robert C, et al. Gene expression profiling in blood cells of endurance horses completing competition or disqualified due to metabolic disorder. Equine Vet J Suppl2006;(36):4349.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    American Endurance Ride Conference. AERC current rules. Available at: www.aerc.org/upload/Rules_Current.pdf. Accessed Mar 27, 2010.

Advertisement

Risk factors for the elimination of endurance horses from competition

C. Langdon Fielding DVM, DACVECC1, Chloe A. Meier2, Olin K. Balch DVM, PhD3, and Phillip H. Kass DVM, PhD, DACVPM4
View More View Less
  • 1 Loomis Basin Equine Medical Center, 3901 Sierra College Blvd, Loomis, CA 95650.
  • | 2 Loomis Basin Equine Medical Center, 3901 Sierra College Blvd, Loomis, CA 95650.
  • | 3 North Fork Veterinary Services, PO Box 344, Cascade, ID 83611.
  • | 4 Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.

Abstract

Objective—To identify risk factors such as signalment, previous competition miles completed, ride characteristics, and physical examination variables associated with the elimination of horses during endurance competitions.

Design—Retrospective observational study.

Sample—Veterinary records for 3,493 endurance horse competition starts.

Procedures—Records were requested of all sanctioned 2007 endurance horse competitions in the United States. Only rides that provided data from all horses were included. The horse's signalment, previous endurance competition record, specific ride characteristics, weight division (ie, based on rider's weight with tack), and physical examination variables throughout the ride were included for analysis. Examination variables were separated into abnormalities occurring prior to the start of the ride, during the first half of the ride, and during the second half of the ride. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for overall elimination and elimination subcategories (lameness and metabolic).

Results—Specific breeds, the heavyweight division, and distance of the ride were all associated with an increased risk of elimination. A variety of examination variables prior to the start of the ride and during the ride were associated with elimination and included heart rate, cardiac recovery index, and abnormal gastrointestinal sounds.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that specific risk factors were associated with elimination of horses from endurance competitions. These factors may be used to help identify horses at higher risk for elimination and prevent morbidity associated with competition.

Abstract

Objective—To identify risk factors such as signalment, previous competition miles completed, ride characteristics, and physical examination variables associated with the elimination of horses during endurance competitions.

Design—Retrospective observational study.

Sample—Veterinary records for 3,493 endurance horse competition starts.

Procedures—Records were requested of all sanctioned 2007 endurance horse competitions in the United States. Only rides that provided data from all horses were included. The horse's signalment, previous endurance competition record, specific ride characteristics, weight division (ie, based on rider's weight with tack), and physical examination variables throughout the ride were included for analysis. Examination variables were separated into abnormalities occurring prior to the start of the ride, during the first half of the ride, and during the second half of the ride. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for overall elimination and elimination subcategories (lameness and metabolic).

Results—Specific breeds, the heavyweight division, and distance of the ride were all associated with an increased risk of elimination. A variety of examination variables prior to the start of the ride and during the ride were associated with elimination and included heart rate, cardiac recovery index, and abnormal gastrointestinal sounds.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that specific risk factors were associated with elimination of horses from endurance competitions. These factors may be used to help identify horses at higher risk for elimination and prevent morbidity associated with competition.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Fielding (langdonfielding@yahoo.com).