• 1.

    Knapp DW. Tumors of the urinary system. In: Withrow SJ, Vail DM, eds. Withrow and MacEwen's small animal clinical oncology. 4th ed. St Louis: Saunders-Elsevier, 2007; 649658.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Henry CJ. Management of transitional cell carcinoma. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2003; 33: 597613.

  • 3.

    Norris AM, Laing EJ, Valli VEO, et al. Canine bladder and urethral tumors: a retrospective of 115 cases (1980–1985). J Vet Intern Med 1992; 6: 145153.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Burnie AG, Weaver AD. Urinary bladder neoplasia in the dog; a review of seventy cases. J Small Anim Pract 1983; 24: 129143.

  • 5.

    Lanz OI. Urinary system. In: Slatter D, ed. Textbook of small animal surgery. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2003; 24452459.

  • 6.

    Davies JV, Read HM. Urethral tumors in dogs. J Small Anim Pract 1990; 31: 131136.

  • 7.

    Nyland TG, Wallack ST, Wisner ER. Needle-tract implantation following US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder, urethra, and prostate. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2002; 43: 5053.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Vignoli M, Rossi F, Chierici C, et al. Needle tract implantation after fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and adenocarcinoma of the lung. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 2007; 149: 314318.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Lamb CR, Trower ND, Gregory SP. Ultrasound-guided catheter biopsy of the lower urinary tract: technique and results in 12 dogs. J Small Anim Pract 1996; 37: 413416.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Stone EA, George TF, Gilson SD, et al. Partial cystectomy for urinary bladder neoplasia: surgical technique and outcome in 11 dogs. J Small Anim Pract 1996; 37: 480485.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Gilson SD, Stone EA. Surgically induced tumor seeding in eight dogs and two cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1990; 196: 18111815.

  • 12.

    Anderson WI, Dunham BM, King JM, et al. Presumptive subcutaneous surgical transplantation of a urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma in a dog. Cornell Vet 1989; 79: 263266.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Adams LG. Cystoscopy. In: Elliot J, Grauer GF, eds. BSAVA manual of canine and feline nephrology and urology. Quedgeley, Gloucester, England: British Small Animal Veterinary Association, 2007; 192197.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Cannizzo KL, McLoughlin MA, Chew DJ, et al. Uroendoscopy: evaluation of the lower urinary tract. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2001; 31: 789807.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Messer JS, Chew DJ, McLoughlin MA. Cystoscopy: techniques and clinical applications. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract 2005; 20: 5264.

  • 16.

    Cooper JE, Milroy EJG, Turton JA, et al. Cystoscopic examination of male and female dogs. Vet Rec 1984; 115: 571574.

  • 17.

    Vermooten V. Cystoscopy in male and female dogs. J Lab Clin Med 1930; 13: 650657.

  • 18.

    Barringer BB. Cystoscopic examination of female dogs. J Urol 1947; 57: 185189.

  • 19.

    Brearley MG, Cooper JE. The diagnosis of bladder disease in dogs by cystoscopy. J Small Anim Pract 1987; 28: 7585.

  • 20.

    Shipley WU, Kaufman DS, McDougal WS, et al. Cancer of the bladder, ureter, and renal pelvis. In: DeVita VT, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, eds. Cancer: principles and practice of oncology. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005; 11681192.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Mitropoulos D, Kiroudi-Voulgari A, Nikolopoulos P, et al. Accuracy of cystoscopy in predicting histologic features of bladder lesions. J Endourol 2005; 19: 861864.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Cheng L, Neumann RM, Weaver AL, et al. Grading and staging of bladder carcinoma in transurethral resection specimens: correlation with 105 matched cystectomy specimens. Am J Clin Pathol 2000; 113: 275279.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Carter HB. Basic instrumentation and cystoscopy. In: Walsh PC, Retic AB, Vaughan ED, et al, eds. Campbell's urology. 8th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 2002; 111121.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Results of biopsy via transurethral cystoscopy and cystotomy for diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and urethra in dogs: 92 cases (2003–2008)

Michael O. Childress DVM, MS1, Larry G. Adams DVM, PhD, DACVIM2, José A. Ramos-Vara DVM, PhD3, Lynetta J. Freeman DVM, MS, DACVS4, Shuang He MS5, Peter D. Constable BVSc, PhD, DACVIM6, and Deborah W. Knapp DVM, MS, DACVIM7
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 3 Departments of Comparative Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 4 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 5 Department of Statistics, College of Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 6 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 7 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.

Abstract

Objective—To assess the diagnostic utility of transurethral cystoscopic biopsy in dogs with histologically confirmed transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder and urethra.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—92 dogs with histologically confirmed TCC.

Procedures—Information on sex, breed, neuter status, body weight, tumor location, biopsy method, number of biopsy procedures, experience level of clinician performing biopsy, and quality of biopsy sample was obtained from medical records. The association of variables with likelihood of achieving a diagnostic-quality biopsy sample was evaluated by use of logistic regression.

Results—If used as the initial biopsy method, cystoscopic biopsy samples were of diagnostic quality in 65% of male dogs and 96% of female dogs with histologically confirmed TCC. Cystoscopic biopsy samples were significantly more likely to be of diagnostic quality in female dogs than in male dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cystoscopic biopsy is an effective method to obtain biopsy samples in dogs with TCC of the bladder and urethra. Cystoscopy is more likely to produce a diagnostic-quality biopsy sample in female dogs with TCC than in male dogs with TCC. Cystoscopy should be considered as a primary means of biopsy in male and female dogs with masses of the urinary bladder or urethra.

Abstract

Objective—To assess the diagnostic utility of transurethral cystoscopic biopsy in dogs with histologically confirmed transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder and urethra.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—92 dogs with histologically confirmed TCC.

Procedures—Information on sex, breed, neuter status, body weight, tumor location, biopsy method, number of biopsy procedures, experience level of clinician performing biopsy, and quality of biopsy sample was obtained from medical records. The association of variables with likelihood of achieving a diagnostic-quality biopsy sample was evaluated by use of logistic regression.

Results—If used as the initial biopsy method, cystoscopic biopsy samples were of diagnostic quality in 65% of male dogs and 96% of female dogs with histologically confirmed TCC. Cystoscopic biopsy samples were significantly more likely to be of diagnostic quality in female dogs than in male dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cystoscopic biopsy is an effective method to obtain biopsy samples in dogs with TCC of the bladder and urethra. Cystoscopy is more likely to produce a diagnostic-quality biopsy sample in female dogs with TCC than in male dogs with TCC. Cystoscopy should be considered as a primary means of biopsy in male and female dogs with masses of the urinary bladder or urethra.

Contributor Notes

Presented in abstract form at the 27th Annual Conference of the Veterinary Cancer Society, Fort Lauderdale, Fla, November 2007.

Address correspondence to Dr. Childress (mochildr@purdue.edu).