• 1.

    Myers NC. Adrenal incidentalomas. Vet Clin North Am Small Animal Pract 1997; 27: 381399.

  • 2.

    Lurye JC, Behrend EN. Endocrine tumors. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2001; 31: 10831110.

  • 3.

    Tursi M, Iussich S, Prunotto M, et al. Adrenal myelolipoma in a dog. VetPathol 2005; 42: 232235.

  • 4.

    Rijnberk A, Kooistra HS, van Vonderen IK, et al. Aldosteronoma in a dog with polyuria as the leading symptom. Domest Anim Endocrinol 2001; 20: 227240.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Reine NJ, Hohenhaus AE, Peterson ME, et al. Deoxycorticosterone-secreting adrenocortical carcinoma in a dog. J Vet Intern Med 1999; 13: 386390.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Syme HM, Scott-Moncrieff JCR, Treadwell NG, et al. Hyperadrenocorticism associated with excessive sex hormone production by an adrenocortical tumor in two dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001; 219: 17251728.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Kintzer PP, Peterson ME. Mitotane treatment of 32 dogs with corticol-secreting adrenocortical neoplasm. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1994; 205: 5461.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Feldman EC, Nelson RW, Feldman RS, et al. Comparison of mitotane treatment for adrenal tumors versus pituitary-dependent hyper-adrenocorticism in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1992; 200: 16421647.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Eastwood JM, Elwood CM, Hurley KJ. Trilostane treatment of a dog with functional adrenocortical neoplasia. J Small Anim Pract 2003; 44: 126131.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Feldman EC. Hyperadrenocorticism. In: Ettinger SJ, Feldman EC, eds. Textbook of veterinary internal medicine. 5th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 2000;14601487.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Barthez PY, Marks SL, Woo J, et al. Pheochromocytoma in dogs: 61 cases (1984–1995). J Vet Intern Med 1997; 11: 272278.

  • 12.

    Kook PH, Boretti FS, Hersberger M, et al. Urinary catecholamine and metanephrine to creatinine ratios in healthy dogs at home and in a hospital environment and in 2 dogs with pheochromocytoma. J Vet Intern Med 2007; 21: 388393.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Herrera MA, Mehl ML, Kass PH, et al. Predictive factors and the effect of phenoxybenzamine on outcome in dogs undergoing adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma. J Vet Intern Med 2008; 22: 13331339.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Anderson CR, Birchard SJ, Powers BE, et al. Surgical treatment of adrenocortical tumors: 21 cases (1990–1996). J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2001; 37: 9397.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Kyles AE, Feldman EC, De Cock HE, et al. Surgical management of adrenal gland tumors with and without associated tumor thrombi in dogs: 40 cases (1994–2001). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003; 223: 654662.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Schwartz P, Kovak JR, Koprowsky A, et al. Evaluation of prognostic factors in the surgical treatment of adrenal gland tumors in dogs: 41 cases (1999–2005). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008; 232: 7784.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Scavelli TD, Peterson ME, Matthiesen DT. Results of surgical treatment for hyperadrenocorticism caused by adrenocortical neoplasia in the dog: 25 cases (1980–1984). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1986; 189: 13601364.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    van Slujis FJ, Sjollema BE, Voorhout G, et al. Results of adrenalectomy in 36 dogs with hyperadrenocorticism caused by adreno-cortical tumor. Vet Q 1995; 17: 113116.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Lucon AM, Pereira MA, Mendonça BB, et al. Adrenocortical tumors: results of treatment and study of Weiss's score as a prognostic factor. Rev Hosp Clin Fac Med Sao Paulo 2002; 57: 251256.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    van Ditzhuijesen CIM, van de Weijer R, Haak HR. Adrenocortical carcinoma. Neth J Med 2007; 65: 5560.

  • 21.

    Tucci S Jr, Martins AC, Suaid HJ, et al. The impact of tumor stage on prognosis in children with adrenocortical carcinoma. J Urol 2005; 174: 23382342.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Lo CY, Lam KY, Wat MS, et al. Adrenal pheochromocytoma remains a frequently overlooked diagnosis. Am J Surg 2000; 179: 212215.

  • 23.

    Porcaro AB, Novella G, Ficarra V, et al. Incidental adrenal pheochromocytoma. Report on 5 operated patients and update of the literature. Arch Ital Urol Androl 2003; 75: 217225.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Brown S, Atkins C, Bagley R, et al. Guidelines for the identification, evaluation, and management of systemic hypertension in dogs and cats. J Vet Intern Med 2007; 21: 542558.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Mitchell IC, Nwariaku FE. Adrenal masses in the cancer patient: surveillance or excision. Oncologist 2007; 12: 168174.

  • 26.

    Sasano H, Suzuki T, Moriya T. Recent advances in histopathology and immunohistochemistry of adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocrinol Pathol 2006; 17: 345354.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Vassilopoulou-Sellin R, Schultz PN. Adrenocortical carcinoma. Clinical outcome at the end of the 20th century. Cancer 2001; 92: 11131121.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Mingoli A, Nardacchione F, Sgarzini G, et al. Inferior vena cava involvement by a left side adrenocortical carcinoma: operative and prognostic factors. Anticancer Res 1996; 16: 31973200.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Peterson ME. Diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism in dogs. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract 2007; 22: 211

  • 30.

    Besso JG, Penninck DG, Gliatto JM. Retrospective ultrasonographic evaluation of adrenal lesions in 26 dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 1997; 38: 448455.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Adrenalectomy in dogs with adrenal gland tumors: 52 cases (2002–2008)

Federico MassariClinica Veterinaria Nerviano, Via Lampugnani 3, Nerviano, 20014 Milan, Italy.

Search for other papers by Federico Massari in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
,
Stefano NicoliClinica Veterinaria Pirani, Via Majakowski 2/L,M,N, 42100 Reggio Emilia, Italy.

Search for other papers by Stefano Nicoli in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
,
Giorgio RomanelliClinica Veterinaria Nerviano, Via Lampugnani 3, Nerviano, 20014 Milan, Italy.

Search for other papers by Giorgio Romanelli in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
,
Paolo BuraccoDipartmento di Patologia Animale, Veterinary School, University of Turin, 10045 Grugliasco, Turin, Italy.

Search for other papers by Paolo Buracco in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
, and
Eric ZiniClinic for Small Animal Internal Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland, Istituto Veterinario di Novara, 28060 Novara, Italy.
Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, University of Padua, 35020 Legnaro, Italy.

Search for other papers by Eric Zini in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate predictors of survival time in dogs undergoing adrenalectomy and identify risk factors associated with adrenal gland tumor metastasis and vein thrombosis.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—52 dogs with primary adrenal gland tumors.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed. Signalment, tumor features, and information from surgical procedures were evaluated to identify factors predictive of overall survival time, which was defined as the time from surgery until death. The association between metastasis or vein thrombosis and tumor type, size, and site (right or left adrenal gland) was investigated.

Results—On the basis of results of univariate analysis, survival time was significantly shorter for dogs with adenocarcinoma, tumor major axis length ≥ 5 cm, metastasis, and vein thrombosis and when adrenalectomy was combined with an additional abdominal surgical intervention. On multivariate analysis, survival time was significantly shorter for dogs with an adrenal gland tumor with major axis length ≥ 5 cm and for dogs with metastasis or vein thrombosis. Significant associations were found between metastasis and adenocarcinoma and between vein thrombosis and tumors with major axis length ≥ 5 cm.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs with an adrenal gland tumor with major axis length ≥ 5 cm, documented metastasis, or vein thrombosis had a poorer prognosis. Metastasis was more frequent in dogs with adenocarcinoma and vein thrombosis when tumors were ≥ 5 cm in length.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate predictors of survival time in dogs undergoing adrenalectomy and identify risk factors associated with adrenal gland tumor metastasis and vein thrombosis.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—52 dogs with primary adrenal gland tumors.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed. Signalment, tumor features, and information from surgical procedures were evaluated to identify factors predictive of overall survival time, which was defined as the time from surgery until death. The association between metastasis or vein thrombosis and tumor type, size, and site (right or left adrenal gland) was investigated.

Results—On the basis of results of univariate analysis, survival time was significantly shorter for dogs with adenocarcinoma, tumor major axis length ≥ 5 cm, metastasis, and vein thrombosis and when adrenalectomy was combined with an additional abdominal surgical intervention. On multivariate analysis, survival time was significantly shorter for dogs with an adrenal gland tumor with major axis length ≥ 5 cm and for dogs with metastasis or vein thrombosis. Significant associations were found between metastasis and adenocarcinoma and between vein thrombosis and tumors with major axis length ≥ 5 cm.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs with an adrenal gland tumor with major axis length ≥ 5 cm, documented metastasis, or vein thrombosis had a poorer prognosis. Metastasis was more frequent in dogs with adenocarcinoma and vein thrombosis when tumors were ≥ 5 cm in length.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Massari (fidomas@hotmail.com).