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Spinal cord nephroblastoma in dogs: 11 cases (1985–2007)

David M. Brewer DVM1, Sofia Cerda-Gonzalez DVM, DACVIM2, Curtis W. Dewey DVM, MS, DACVS, DACVIM3, Anh N. Diep VMD4, Kristin Van Horne BA5, and Sean P. McDonough DVM, PhD, DACVP6
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  • 1 Departments of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.
  • | 2 Departments of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.
  • | 3 Departments of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.
  • | 4 Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.
  • | 5 Hospital for Animals, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.
  • | 6 Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate clinical features and outcome of dogs with a confirmed spinal cord nephroblastoma and to describe the use of Wilms tumor-1 (WT-1) immunohistochemical staining to confirm a diagnosis of nephroblastoma in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—11 dogs with a spinal cord nephroblastoma.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs with a spinal cord nephroblastoma were reviewed. Information extracted included signalment, history, clinical signs, results of diagnostic testing, tumor location, treatment, and outcome. The diagnosis was confirmed through histologic review and WT-1 immunohistochemical staining of a tumor sample. In dogs with negative results for staining with WT-1, staining for cytokeratin, vimentin, and glial fibrillar acidic protein was performed.

Results—11 dogs had a spinal cord tumor with a histologic appearance and immunohistochemical staining consistent with a nephroblastoma. Positive results for staining with WT-1 were detected in 9 of 11 dogs. Age at admission ranged from 5 to 48 months (median, 14 months). Nine dogs were female. All had progressive paraparesis, paraplegia, or ataxia. Duration of clinical signs ranged from 2 to 60 days (median, 14 days). Median survival time was 30 days from the time of diagnosis. Median survival time in dogs treated via surgical resection was 70.5 days.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The prognosis for dogs with a spinal cord nephroblastoma appeared to be poor, although combined surgical resection and radiation therapy may provide a good functional outcome. Results for staining with WT-1 can be used to support a diagnosis of nephroblastoma.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate clinical features and outcome of dogs with a confirmed spinal cord nephroblastoma and to describe the use of Wilms tumor-1 (WT-1) immunohistochemical staining to confirm a diagnosis of nephroblastoma in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—11 dogs with a spinal cord nephroblastoma.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs with a spinal cord nephroblastoma were reviewed. Information extracted included signalment, history, clinical signs, results of diagnostic testing, tumor location, treatment, and outcome. The diagnosis was confirmed through histologic review and WT-1 immunohistochemical staining of a tumor sample. In dogs with negative results for staining with WT-1, staining for cytokeratin, vimentin, and glial fibrillar acidic protein was performed.

Results—11 dogs had a spinal cord tumor with a histologic appearance and immunohistochemical staining consistent with a nephroblastoma. Positive results for staining with WT-1 were detected in 9 of 11 dogs. Age at admission ranged from 5 to 48 months (median, 14 months). Nine dogs were female. All had progressive paraparesis, paraplegia, or ataxia. Duration of clinical signs ranged from 2 to 60 days (median, 14 days). Median survival time was 30 days from the time of diagnosis. Median survival time in dogs treated via surgical resection was 70.5 days.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The prognosis for dogs with a spinal cord nephroblastoma appeared to be poor, although combined surgical resection and radiation therapy may provide a good functional outcome. Results for staining with WT-1 can be used to support a diagnosis of nephroblastoma.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Cerda-Gonzalez (sc224@cornell.edu).