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Association of periodontal disease with systemic health indices in dogs and the systemic response to treatment of periodontal disease

Jennifer E. Rawlinson DVM, DAVDC1, Richard E. Goldstein DVM, DACVIM2, Alexander M. Reiter Dipl Tzt, Dr med vet, DAVDC3, Daniel Z. Attwater BS4, and Colin E. Harvey BVSc, DAVDC, DACVS5
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  • 1 Department of Clinical Studies-Philadelphia, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104
  • | 2 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853
  • | 3 Department of Clinical Studies-Philadelphia, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104
  • | 4 Division of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812.
  • | 5 Department of Clinical Studies-Philadelphia, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether severity of periodontal disease (PD) was associated with systemic health indices in dogs and whether treatment of PD altered systemic health indices.

Design—Prospective cohort study.

Animals—38 dogs.

Procedures—Healthy dogs with clinical signs of PD were included in the study. Physical examination, serum biochemical analysis, a CBC, urine evaluati on, measurement of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, and a microalbuminuria test were performed prior to treatment of PD. All tooth roots were scored for gingivitis and attachment loss, and appropriate treatment of PD was performed. Laboratory data were obtained 4 weeks after treatment. The Spearman rank correlation and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for statistical analysis.

Results—Analyses of the correlation of several variables with attachment loss or gingivitis or of differences before and after treatment revealed significant results for several variables. After applying Bonferroni corrections for family-wise error rate, significant rank correlations were found between attachment loss and platelet number (r = 0.54), creatinine concentration (r = −0.49), and the within-dog difference in CRP concentrations before and after treatment (r = 0.40). The BUN concentration was significantly higher after treatment than before treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Increasing severity of attachment loss was associated with changes in systemic inflammatory variables and renal indices. A decrease in CRP concentration after treatment was correlated with the severity of PD. The BUN concentration increased significantly after treatment of PD. There is a need for continued research into the systemic impact of PD.

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether severity of periodontal disease (PD) was associated with systemic health indices in dogs and whether treatment of PD altered systemic health indices.

Design—Prospective cohort study.

Animals—38 dogs.

Procedures—Healthy dogs with clinical signs of PD were included in the study. Physical examination, serum biochemical analysis, a CBC, urine evaluati on, measurement of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, and a microalbuminuria test were performed prior to treatment of PD. All tooth roots were scored for gingivitis and attachment loss, and appropriate treatment of PD was performed. Laboratory data were obtained 4 weeks after treatment. The Spearman rank correlation and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for statistical analysis.

Results—Analyses of the correlation of several variables with attachment loss or gingivitis or of differences before and after treatment revealed significant results for several variables. After applying Bonferroni corrections for family-wise error rate, significant rank correlations were found between attachment loss and platelet number (r = 0.54), creatinine concentration (r = −0.49), and the within-dog difference in CRP concentrations before and after treatment (r = 0.40). The BUN concentration was significantly higher after treatment than before treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Increasing severity of attachment loss was associated with changes in systemic inflammatory variables and renal indices. A decrease in CRP concentration after treatment was correlated with the severity of PD. The BUN concentration increased significantly after treatment of PD. There is a need for continued research into the systemic impact of PD.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Rawlinson's present address is C3 512 Clinical Programs Center, Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.

Supported by the Heska Corporation.

Presented in part as an oral presentation at the 19th Annual Veterinary Dental Forum, Orlando, Fla, October 2005.

Address correspondence to Dr. Rawlinson (jee2@cornell.edu).