• 1.

    Ferasin L, Ogden DM, Davies SJ, et al. Electrocardiographic parameters of normal alpacas (Lama pacos). Vet Rec 2005; 157:341343.

  • 2.

    Boon JA, Knight AP, Moore DH. Llama cardiology. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 1994; 10:353370.

  • 3.

    Barlow AM, Mitchell KA, Visram KH. Bovine tuberculosis in llama (Lama glama) in the UK. Vet Rec 1999; 145:639640.

  • 4.

    Barr BS, Seco O, Axon J, et al. Successful treatment of pericarditis in a pregnant llama. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2001; 11:287291.

  • 5.

    Nichols S, Anderson DE, Schober KE. Subtotal pericardiectomy for treatment of constrictive effusive pericarditis in a llama cria. J Camel Pract Res 2007; 14:3337.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Kienle RD. Pericardial disease and cardiac neoplasia. In: Kittleson MD, Kienle RD, eds. Small animal cardiovascular medicine. St Louis: Mosby Inc, 1998;413432.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Surawicz B, Knilans TK. Pericarditis and cardiac surgery. In: Surawicz B, Knilans TK, eds. Chou's electrocardiography in clinical practice. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2001;239255.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Sacks E, Widman LE. Nonlinear heart model predicts range of heart rates for 2:1 swinging in pericardial effusion. Am J Physiol 1993; 264:H1716H1722.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Surawicz B, Fisch C. Cardiac alternans: diverse mechanisms and clinical manifestations. J Am Coll Cardiol 1992; 20:483499.

  • 10.

    Brody DA. A theoretical analysis of intracavitary blood mass influence on the heart-lead relationship. Circ Res 1956; 4:731738.

  • 11.

    Hamlin RL, Smith CR. Categorization of common domestic mammals based upon their ventricular activation process. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1965; 127:195203.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Margiocco ML, Scansen BA, Bonagura JD. Camelid cardiology. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2009; 25:423454.

  • 13.

    Bastres MC, Sakabe N, Yasuda J, et al. Electrocardiogram studies in llamas. Jpn J Vet Res 1989; 37:8595.

  • 14.

    Friedman HS, Gomes JA, Tardio AR, et al. The electrocardiographic features of acute cardiac tamponade. Circulation 1974; 50:260265.

  • 15.

    Friedman HS, Lajam F, Gomes JA, et al. Demonstration of a depressor reflex in acute cardiac tamponade. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1977; 73:278286.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Castaner A, Kostreva DR, Kampine JP. Changes in autonomic nerve activity during acute pericardial tamponade. Cardiology 1980; 66:163173.

  • 17.

    LeWinter MM, Kabbani S. Pericardial diseases. In: Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, et al, eds. Braunwald's heart disease. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders, 2005;17571780.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

ECG of the Month

Brian G. StewartDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

Search for other papers by Brian G. Stewart in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
,
Brian A. ScansenDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

Search for other papers by Brian A. Scansen in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MS, DACVIM
,
Richard E. CoberDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

Search for other papers by Richard E. Cober in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MS, DACVIM
, and
M. Ellen CarinoDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

Search for other papers by M. Ellen Carino in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM

Contributor Notes

Dr. Stewart's present address is St. Charles Veterinary Clinic, 530 Dunham Rd, St Charles, IL 60174.

Address correspondence to Dr. Scansen (Brian.Scansen@cvm.osu.edu).