• 1.

    Feuerstein M. Defining cancer survivorship. J Cancer Surviv 2007; 1: 57.

  • 2.

    Gospodarowicz M. Testicular cancer patients: considerations in long-term follow-up. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 2008; 22: 245255.

  • 3.

    Zanetta GBonazzi CCantù M, et al. Survival and reproductive function after treatment of malignant germ cell ovarian tumors. J Clin Oncol 2001; 19: 10151020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Haddy TBAdde MAMcCalla J, et al. Late effects in long-term survivors of high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. J Clin Oncol 1998; 16: 20702079.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Hagemeister FB. Hodgkin's lymphoma in younger patients: lessons learned on the road to success. Oncology 2007; 21: 434440.

  • 6.

    Travis LBCurtis REGlimelius B, et al. Second cancers among long-term survivors of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 1993; 85: 19321937.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Neglia JPFriedman DLYasui Y, et al. Second malignant neoplasms in five-year survivors of childhood cancer: childhood cancer survivor study. J Natl Cancer Inst 2001; 93: 618629.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Ng AKTravis LB. Subsequent malignant neoplasms in cancer survivors. Cancer J 2008; 14: 429434.

  • 9.

    Vail DMYoung KM. Canine lymphoma and lymphoid leukemia. In: Withrow SJVail DM, eds. Withrow & MacEwen's small animal clinical oncology. 4th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 2007;699722.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Pastor MChalvet-Monfray KMarchal T, et al. Genetic and environmental risk indicators in canine non-Hodgkin's lymphomas: breed associations and geographic distribution of 608 cases diagnosed throughout France over 1 year. J Vet Intern Med 2009; 23: 301310.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Marconato LLeo CGirelli R, et al. Association between waste management and cancer in companion animals. J Vet Intern Med 2009; 23: 564569.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Raskin RE. Lymphoid system. In: Raskin REMeyer DJ, eds. Atlas of canine and feline cytology. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 2001;111.

  • 13.

    Savage PStebbing JBower M, et al. Why does chemotherapy cure only some cancers? Nat Clin Pract Oncol 2009; 6: 4352.

  • 14.

    Marconato LBonfanti UStefanello D, et al. Cytosine arabinoside in addition to VCAA-based protocols for the treatment of canine lymphoma with bone marrow involvement: does it make the difference? Vet Comp Oncol 2008; 6: 8089.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Fournel-Fleury CMagnol JPBricaire P, et al. Cytohistological and immunological classification of canine malignant lymphomas: comparison with human non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. J Comp Pathol 1997; 117: 3559.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Vail DMYoung KM. Hematopoietic tumors: lymphoma and lymphoid leukemia. In: Withrow SJVail DM, eds. Withrow and MacEwen's small animal clinical oncology. 4th ed. St Louis: WB Saunders Co, 2007;699733.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Zemann BIMoore ASRand WM, et al. A combination chemotherapy protocol (VELCAP-L) for dogs with lymphoma. J Vet Intern Med 1998; 12: 465470.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Miller AGMorley PSRao S, et al. Anemia is associated with decreased survival time in dogs with lymphoma. J Vet Intern Med 2009; 23: 116122.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Abbo AHLucroy MD. Assessment of anemia as an independent predictor of response to chemotherapy and survival in dogs with lymphoma: 96 cases (1993–2006). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007; 231: 18361842.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Tvedten HWeiss DJ. Classification and laboratory evaluation of anemia. In: Feldman BFZinkl JGJain NC, eds. Schalm's veterinary hematology. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000;143150.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Appelbaum FRDeeg HJStorb R, et al. Cure of malignant lymphoma in dogs with peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Transplantation 1986; 42: 1922.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Garrett LDThamm DHChun R, et al. Evaluation of a 6-month chemotherapy protocol with no maintenance therapy for dogs with lymphoma. J Vet Intern Med 2002; 16: 704709.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Greenlee PGFilippa DAQuimby FW, et al. Lymphomas in dogs. A morphologic, immunologic, and clinical study. Cancer 1990; 66: 480490.

  • 24.

    Ponce FMagnol JPLedieu D, et al. Prognostic significance of morphological subtypes in canine malignant lymphomas during chemotherapy. Vet J 2004; 167: 158166.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Teske Evan Heerde PRutteman GR, et al. Prognostic factors for treatment of malignant lymphoma in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1994; 205: 17221728.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Jagielski DLechowski RHoffmann-Jagielska M, et al. A retrospective study of the incidence and prognostic factors of multicentric lymphoma in dogs (1998–2000). J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 2002; 49: 419424.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Sacchi SMarcheselli LBari A, et al. Second malignancies after treatment of diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a GISL cohort study. Haematologica 2008; 93: 13351342.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Moser ECNoordijk EMvan Leeuwen FE, et al. Risk of second cancer after treatment of aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; n EORTC cohort study. Haematologica 2006; 91: 14811488.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Mudie NYSwerdlow AJHiggins CD, et al. Risk of second malignancy after non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a British Cohort Study. J Clin Oncol 2006; 24: 15681574.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Tward JDWendland MMShrieve DC, et al. The risk of secondary malignancies over 30 years after treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer 2006; 107: 114118.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Hawkins MMWilson LMBurton HS, et al. Radiotherapy, alkylating agents, and risk of bone cancer after childhood cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1996; 88: 270278.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Tucker MAD'Angio GJBoice JD, et al. Bone sarcomas linked to radiotherapy and chemotherapy in children. N Engl J Med 1987; 317: 588593.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Predictors of long-term survival in dogs with high-grade multicentric lymphoma

View More View Less
  • 1 Clinica Veterinaria L'Arca, Vico Cacciottoli 46–47, 80129 Naples, Italy.
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Milan, 20133 Milan, Italy.
  • | 3 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Milan, 20133 Milan, Italy.
  • | 4 Clinica Veterinaria Gran Sasso, Via Donatello 26, 20131 Milan, Italy.
  • | 5 Department of Animal Pathology, Hygiene, and Public Health, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Milan, 20133 Milan, Italy.
  • | 6 Department of Animal Pathology, Hygiene, and Public Health, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Milan, 20133 Milan, Italy.
  • | 7 Department of Animal Pathology, Hygiene, and Public Health, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Milan, 20133 Milan, Italy.
  • | 8 Clinica Veterinaria Nerviano, Via Lampugnani 3, 20014 Nerviano, Italy.
  • | 9 Clinica Veterinaria Nerviano, Via Lampugnani 3, 20014 Nerviano, Italy.
  • | 10 Clinic for Small Animal Internal Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zürich, CH-8057 Zürich, Switzerland.

Abstract

Objective—To determine factors predicting survival in dogs with high-grade multicentric lymphoma.

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—127 dogs with high-grade multicentric lymphoma evaluated at 4 veterinary hospitals from 2000 to 2009.

Procedures—Records were reviewed to identify dogs with completely staged high-grade multicentric lymphoma treated with chemotherapy. Data collected included signalment, history, hematologic findings, tumor characteristics, treatment, and outcome. Long-term survival was defined as surviving > 2 years after diagnosis. Variables were analyzed for associations with dogs living > 2 years.

Results—Among the 127 enrolled dogs, 13 (10%) survived > 2 years with a median survival time of 914 days (range, 740 to 2,058 days). Survival rates at 3, 4, and 5 years were 4%, 3%, and 1 %, respectively. At diagnosis, 11 of the 13 long-term survivors had a body weight ≥ 10 kg, PCV ≥ 35%, absence of ionized hypercalcemia, centroblastic lymphoma, immunophenotype B, absence of bone marrow involvement, and lymphoma stages I through IV and were not previously treated with corticosteroids. The same combination of factors was present in 26 of 114 (23%) dogs surviving ≤ 2 years, yielding a negative predictive value of 97.8% for long-term survivors. Four of the 6 long-term survivors that died during the study died of another cancer; 3 of them had osteosarcoma.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Absence of the aforementioned combination of variables at diagnosis may help identify dogs with lymphoma that will not survive > 2 years. Other types of neoplasia, in particular osteosarcoma, may develop in long-term–surviving dogs.

Abstract

Objective—To determine factors predicting survival in dogs with high-grade multicentric lymphoma.

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—127 dogs with high-grade multicentric lymphoma evaluated at 4 veterinary hospitals from 2000 to 2009.

Procedures—Records were reviewed to identify dogs with completely staged high-grade multicentric lymphoma treated with chemotherapy. Data collected included signalment, history, hematologic findings, tumor characteristics, treatment, and outcome. Long-term survival was defined as surviving > 2 years after diagnosis. Variables were analyzed for associations with dogs living > 2 years.

Results—Among the 127 enrolled dogs, 13 (10%) survived > 2 years with a median survival time of 914 days (range, 740 to 2,058 days). Survival rates at 3, 4, and 5 years were 4%, 3%, and 1 %, respectively. At diagnosis, 11 of the 13 long-term survivors had a body weight ≥ 10 kg, PCV ≥ 35%, absence of ionized hypercalcemia, centroblastic lymphoma, immunophenotype B, absence of bone marrow involvement, and lymphoma stages I through IV and were not previously treated with corticosteroids. The same combination of factors was present in 26 of 114 (23%) dogs surviving ≤ 2 years, yielding a negative predictive value of 97.8% for long-term survivors. Four of the 6 long-term survivors that died during the study died of another cancer; 3 of them had osteosarcoma.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Absence of the aforementioned combination of variables at diagnosis may help identify dogs with lymphoma that will not survive > 2 years. Other types of neoplasia, in particular osteosarcoma, may develop in long-term–surviving dogs.

Contributor Notes

Drs. Marconato and Valenti's present address is Animal Oncology and Imaging Center, Rothusstrasse 2, 6331 Hünenberg, Switzerland.

Dr. Bonfanti's present address is Accelera-Nerviano Medical Sciences, Viale Pasteur 10, 20014 Nerviano, Italy.

Presented in part at the Annual ESVONC Congress, March 2010.

Address correspondence to Dr. Marconato (marconato@aoicenter.ch).