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Predictors of outcome in dogs with subcutaneous or intramuscular hemangiosarcoma

Kai-Biu Shiu BVMS, DACVIM1, Andrea B. Flory DVM, DACVIM2, Christie L. Anderson DVM3, Jackie Wypij DVM4, Corey Saba DVM, DACVIM5, Heather Wilson DVM, DACVIM6, Ilene Kurzman MS, EdD7, and Ruthanne Chun DVM, DACVIM8
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  • 1 Department of Medical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.
  • | 2 The Animal Medical Center, 510 E 62nd St, New York, NY 10065.
  • | 3 The Animal Cancer Center, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
  • | 4 Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL 61802.
  • | 5 Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.
  • | 6 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843.
  • | 7 Department of Medical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.
  • | 8 Department of Medical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.

Abstract

Objective—To identify prognostic factors in a large group of dogs with subcutaneous or intramuscular hemangiosarcoma (HSA) or both.

Design—Multi-institutional retrospective cohort study.

Animals—71 dogs with subcutaneous or intramuscular HSA.

Procedures—Medical records of affected dogs were reviewed. The following factors were evaluated for an association with outcome: dog age and sex, clinical signs, anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutrophilia, tumor stage at diagnosis, achievement of complete excision, intramuscular involvement, presence of gross disease, tumor recurrence, and treatment.

Results—Of the 71 cases identified, 16 (29%) had intramuscular tumor involvement. For all dogs, median time to tumor progression and overall survival time (OST) were 116 and 172 days, respectively; 25% survived to 1 year. Univariate analysis identified presence of clinical signs or metastasis at diagnosis, dog age, tumor size, use of any surgery, and presence of gross disease as predictors of time to tumor progression and OST. There was no significant difference in survival time between dogs with respect to type of HSA. Multivariate analysis confirmed that adequate local tumor control, tumor diameter ≤ 4 cm, presence of metastasis at diagnosis, and presence of gross disease were significantly associated with OST.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Subcutaneous and intramuscular HSA remains a heterogeneous group of tumors that generally carries a poor prognosis. Adequate local control of smaller tumors with no associated clinical signs or metastasis may provide the best chance of long-term survival.

Abstract

Objective—To identify prognostic factors in a large group of dogs with subcutaneous or intramuscular hemangiosarcoma (HSA) or both.

Design—Multi-institutional retrospective cohort study.

Animals—71 dogs with subcutaneous or intramuscular HSA.

Procedures—Medical records of affected dogs were reviewed. The following factors were evaluated for an association with outcome: dog age and sex, clinical signs, anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutrophilia, tumor stage at diagnosis, achievement of complete excision, intramuscular involvement, presence of gross disease, tumor recurrence, and treatment.

Results—Of the 71 cases identified, 16 (29%) had intramuscular tumor involvement. For all dogs, median time to tumor progression and overall survival time (OST) were 116 and 172 days, respectively; 25% survived to 1 year. Univariate analysis identified presence of clinical signs or metastasis at diagnosis, dog age, tumor size, use of any surgery, and presence of gross disease as predictors of time to tumor progression and OST. There was no significant difference in survival time between dogs with respect to type of HSA. Multivariate analysis confirmed that adequate local tumor control, tumor diameter ≤ 4 cm, presence of metastasis at diagnosis, and presence of gross disease were significantly associated with OST.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Subcutaneous and intramuscular HSA remains a heterogeneous group of tumors that generally carries a poor prognosis. Adequate local control of smaller tumors with no associated clinical signs or metastasis may provide the best chance of long-term survival.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Shiu's present address is Veterinary Specialty Center, 1612 N High Point Rd, Middleton, WI 53562.

Dr. Anderson's present address is Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164.

Presented as a poster at the 29th Annual Conference of the Veterinary Cancer Society, Austin, Tex, October 2009.

The authors thank Nicholas Keuler for statistical assistance.

Address correspondence to Dr. Shiu (kbshiu@gmail.com).