Pathology in Practice

Beatrice T. Sponseller Departments of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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 Dr med vet, DABVP
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Brandon L. Plattner Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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 DVM, PhD, DACVP
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Jesse M. Hostetter Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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 DVM, PhD, DACVP
  • 1.

    Hoffmann KLWood AKMcCarthy PH. Sonographic-anatomic correlation and imaging protocol for the kidneys of horses. Am J Vet Res 1995; 56:14031412.

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  • 2.

    Isaza RSchiller CAStover J, et al. Halicephalobus gingivalis (Nematoda) infection in a Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi). J Zoo Wildl Med 2000; 31:7781.

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  • 3.

    Nadler SACarreno RAAdams BJ, et al. Molecular phylogenetics and diagnosis of soil and clinical isolates of Halicephalobus gingivalis (Nematoda: Cephalobina: Panagrolaimoidea), an opportunistic pathogen of horses. Int J Parasitol 2003; 33:11151125.

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  • 4.

    Schmitz DGChaffin MK. What is your diagnosis? Halicephalobus gingivalis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004; 225:16671668.

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    Gardiner CHKoh DSCardella TA. Micronema in man: third fatal infection. Am J Imp Med Hyg 1981; 30:586589.

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    Anderson RCLinder KEPeregrine AS. Halicephalobus gingivalis (Stefanski, 1954) from a fatal infection in a horse in Ontario, Canada with comments on the validity of H. deletrix and a review of the genus. Parasite 1998; 5:255261.

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  • 7.

    Spalding MGGreiner ECGreen SL. Halicephalobus (Micronema) deletrix infection in two half-sibling foals. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1990; 196:11271129.

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    Bryant UKLyons ETBain FT, et al. Halicephalobus gingivalis—associated meningoencephalitis in a Thoroughbred foal. J Vet Diagn Invest 2006; 18:612615.

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  • 9.

    Wilkins PAWacholder SNolan TJ, et al. Evidence for transmission of Halicephalobus deletrix (H gingivalis) from dam to foal. J Vet Intern Med 2001; 15:412417.

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    Wlaschitz SFrohlich WRiedelberger K, et al. First reported case of intra vitam diagnosed Halicephalobus gingivalis infection in a lipizzaner stallion in Austria. Wiener Tierärztl Monatsschr 2000; 87:296302.

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  • 11.

    Dunn DGGardiner CHDralle KR, et al. Nodular granulomatous posthitis caused by Halicephalobus (syn. Micronema) sp. in a horse. Vet Pathol 1993; 30:207208.

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    Muller SGrzybowski MSager H, et al. A nodular granulomatous posthitis caused by Halicephalobus sp. in a horse. Vet Dermatol 2008; 19:4448.

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    Pearce SGBoure LPTaylor JA, et al. Treatment of a granuloma caused by Halicephalobus gingivalis in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001; 219:17351738.

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  • 14.

    Akagami MShibahara TYoshiga T, et al. Granulomatous nephritis and meningoencephalomyelitis caused by Halicephalobus gingivalis in a pony gelding. J Vet Med Sci 2007; 69:11871190.

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    Mandrioli LMorini MBettini G, et al. Halicephalobus gingivalis granulomatous encephalitis in a horse. Ippologia 2002; 13:2738.

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    Majzoub MSchmidt PHafner A, et al. Halicephalobus deletrix infection in two horses [in German]. Wiener Tierärztl Monatsschr 2000; 87:257261.

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    Buergelt CD. Halicephalobus (Micronema) deletrix infection in the horse. Equine Pract 1991; 13:712.

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    Shibahara TTakai HShimizu C, et al. Equine renal granuloma caused by Halicephalobus species. Vet Rec 2002; 151:672674.

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    Wollanke BGerhards HSchaffer EH. Keratouveitis and macro-haematuria in a horse with Micronema deletrix infection. Pferdeheilkunde 2000; 16:2329.

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  • 20.

    Schumacher J. Hematuria and pigmenturia of horses. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2007; 23:655675.

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