• 1.

    Rozanski EA, Rush JE. Monitoring critical care patients. In: Small animal emergency and critical care medicine. London: Manson Publishing Ltd, 2007;213219.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Kobayashi DL, Peterson ME, Graves TK, et al. Hypertension in cats with chronic renal failure or hyperthyroidism. J Vet Intern Med 1990;4:5862.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Stiles J, Polzin D, Bistner SL. The prevalence of retinopathy in cats with systemic hypertension and chronic renal failure or hypertension. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1994;30:564572.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Syme HM, Barber PJ, Markwell PJ, et al. Prevalence of systolic hypertension in cats with chronic renal failure at initial evaluation. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:17991804.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Bartges JW, Willis AM, Polzin DJ. Hypertension and renal disease. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1996;26:13311345.

  • 6.

    Panciera DL. Cardiovascular complications of thyroid disease. In: Bonagura JD, ed. Kirk's current veterinary therapy XII: small animal practice. 13th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 2000;716719.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Cowgill LD, James KM, Levy JK, et al. Use of recombinant human erythropoietin for management of anemia in dogs and cats with renal failure. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212:521528.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Brown SA, Henik RA. Diagnosis and treatment of systemic hypertension. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1998;28:14811494.

  • 9.

    Chetboul V, Lefebvre HP, Pinhas C, et al. Spontaneous feline hypertension: clinical and echocardiographic abnormalities and survival rate. J Vet Intern Med 2003;17:8995.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Litman MP. Spontaneous systemic hypertension in 24 cats. J Vet Med Intern Med 1994;8:7986.

  • 11.

    Branson KR, Wagner-Mann CC, Mann FA. Evaluation of an oscillometric blood pressure monitor on anesthetized cats and the effect of cuff placement and fur on accuracy. Vet Surg 1997;26:347353.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Binns SH, Sisson DD, Buoscio DA, et al. Doppler ultrasonographic, oscillometric sphygmomanometric, and photoplethysmographic techniques for noninvasive blood pressure measurement in anesthetized cats. J Vet Intern Med 1995;9:405414.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Acierno MJ, Labato MA. Hypertension in renal disease: diagnosis and treatment. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract 2005;20:2330.

  • 14.

    Caulkett NA, Cantwell SL, Houston DM. A comparison of indirect blood pressure monitoring techniques in the anesthetized cat. Vet Surg 1998;27:370377.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Grandy JL, Dunlop CI, Hodgson DS, et al. Evaluation of the Doppler ultrasonic method of measuring systolic arterial blood pressure in cats. Am J Vet Res 1992;53:11661169.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Pedersen KM, Butler MA, Ersboll AK, et al. Evaluation of an oscillometric blood pressure monitor for use in anesthetized cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:646650.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Ramsey M III. Noninvasive automatic determination of mean arterial pressure. Med Biol Eng Comput 1979;17:1118.

  • 18.

    Mauck GW, Smith CR, Geddes LA, et al. The meaning of the point of maximum oscillations in cuff pressure in the indirect measurement of blood pressure—part ii. J Biomech Eng 1980;102:2833.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Lee TK, Westenskow DR. Comparison of blood pressure measured by osscilimetry from the supraorbital artery and invasively from the radial artery. J Clin Monit Comput 1998;14:113117.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Kleinman B, Powell S, Kumar P, et al. The fast flush test measures the dynamic response of the entire blood pressure monitoring system. Anesthesiology 1992;77:12151220.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Gardner RM. Direct blood pressure measurement—dynamic response requirements. Anesthesiology 1981;54:227236.

  • 22.

    Bland JM, Altman DG. Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. Lancet 1986;1:307310.

  • 23.

    Bland JM, Altman DG. Agreement between methods of measurement with multiple observations per individual. J Biopharm Stat 2007;17:571582.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    ANSI/AAMI SP10. 2002: manual, electronic, or automated sphygmomanometers. Arlington, Va: Association for the Advancement of Medical Instruments, 2008.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Agreement between directly measured blood pressure and pressures obtained with three veterinary-specific oscillometric units in cats

Mark J. Acierno MBA, DVM, DACVIM1, Diana Seaton DVM2, Mark A. Mitchell DVM, PhD3, and Anderson da Cunha DVM, MS, DACVA4
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803.
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803.
  • | 3 Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802.
  • | 4 Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803.

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether veterinary-specific oscillometric blood pressure units yield measurements that are in good agreement with directly measured blood pressures in cats.

Design—Evaluation study.

Animals—21 cats undergoing routine spaying or neutering.

Procedures—A 24-gauge catheter was inserted in a dorsal pedal artery, and systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures were directly measured with a validated pressure measurement system. Values were compared with indirect blood pressure measurements obtained with 3 veterinary-specific oscillometric blood pressure units.

Results—There was poor agreement between indirectly and directly measured blood pressures. For unit 1, bias between indirectly and directly measured values was −14.9 mm Hg (95% limits of agreement [LOA], −52.2 to 22.4 mm Hg), 4.4 mm Hg (95% LOA, −26.0 to 34.8 mm Hg), and −1.3 mm Hg (95% LOA, −26.7 to 24.1 mm Hg) for systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures, respectively. For unit 2, bias was −10.3 mm Hg (95% LOA, −52.9 to 32.2 mm Hg), 13.0 mm Hg (95% LOA, −32.1 to 58.0 mm Hg), and 9.1 mm Hg (95% LOA, −32.9 to 51.2 mm Hg) for systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures, respectively. For unit 3, bias was −13.4 mm Hg (95% LOA, −51.8 to 25.1 mm Hg), 8.0 mm Hg (95% LOA, −25.5 to 41.6 mm Hg), and −3.6 mm Hg (95% LOA, −31.6 to 24.5 mm Hg) for systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that none of the 3 veterinary-specific oscillometric blood pressure units could be recommended for indirect measurement of blood pressure in cats.

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether veterinary-specific oscillometric blood pressure units yield measurements that are in good agreement with directly measured blood pressures in cats.

Design—Evaluation study.

Animals—21 cats undergoing routine spaying or neutering.

Procedures—A 24-gauge catheter was inserted in a dorsal pedal artery, and systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures were directly measured with a validated pressure measurement system. Values were compared with indirect blood pressure measurements obtained with 3 veterinary-specific oscillometric blood pressure units.

Results—There was poor agreement between indirectly and directly measured blood pressures. For unit 1, bias between indirectly and directly measured values was −14.9 mm Hg (95% limits of agreement [LOA], −52.2 to 22.4 mm Hg), 4.4 mm Hg (95% LOA, −26.0 to 34.8 mm Hg), and −1.3 mm Hg (95% LOA, −26.7 to 24.1 mm Hg) for systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures, respectively. For unit 2, bias was −10.3 mm Hg (95% LOA, −52.9 to 32.2 mm Hg), 13.0 mm Hg (95% LOA, −32.1 to 58.0 mm Hg), and 9.1 mm Hg (95% LOA, −32.9 to 51.2 mm Hg) for systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures, respectively. For unit 3, bias was −13.4 mm Hg (95% LOA, −51.8 to 25.1 mm Hg), 8.0 mm Hg (95% LOA, −25.5 to 41.6 mm Hg), and −3.6 mm Hg (95% LOA, −31.6 to 24.5 mm Hg) for systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that none of the 3 veterinary-specific oscillometric blood pressure units could be recommended for indirect measurement of blood pressure in cats.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Seaton was a third-year veterinary student at the time of the study.

Equipment used in the study was provided by Vetline LLC and Ramsey Medical.

Dr. Seaton was supported by a Merck-Merial summer research scholar stipend during the study.

Presented in part at the 2009 American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Forum, Montreal, QC, Canada, June 2009.

The authors thank Drs. Wendy Wolfson and Susan Eddlestone of the Louisiana State University Animal Sterilization Assistance Program for assistance.

Address correspondence to Dr. Acierno (macierno@vetmed.lsu.edu).