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A comparison of acepromazine-buprenorphine and medetomidine-buprenorphine for preanesthetic medication of dogs

Nicola J. GrintDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Science, School of Veterinary Science, University of Liverpool, Leahurst, Neston, Wirral, CH46 7TE, England.

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Briony AldersonDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Science, School of Veterinary Science, University of Liverpool, Leahurst, Neston, Wirral, CH46 7TE, England.

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Alexandra H. A. DugdaleDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Science, School of Veterinary Science, University of Liverpool, Leahurst, Neston, Wirral, CH46 7TE, England.

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Abstract

Objective—To assess sedative and cardiopulmonary effects of premedication with a medetomidine-buprenorphine or acepromazine-buprenorphine combination in dogs anesthetized with propofol and isoflurane.

Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.

Animals—90 dogs undergoing routine surgical and diagnostic procedures.

Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 premedication groups: group 1 (acepromazine, 0.03 mg/kg [0.014 mg/lb], IM; buprenorphine, 0.02 mg/kg [0.009 mg/lb], IM), 2 (medetomidine, 5 μg/kg [2.3 μg/lb], IM; buprenorphine, 0.02 mg/kg, IM), or 3 (medetomidine, 10 μg/kg [4.5 μg/lb], IM; buprenorphine, 0.02 mg/kg, IM). Anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. Simple descriptive scores for sedation were assigned 15 minutes (groups 2 and 3) and 30 minutes (group 1) after premedication administration. Basic cardiopulmonary data were recorded throughout the anesthetic period. Times to recovery from anesthesia were recorded.

Results—Sedation scores did not differ significantly among groups. Mean and diastolic blood pressures were significantly lower and heart rate was significantly higher in group 1 than in the other groups. Mean end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 was significantly lower and respiratory rate was significantly higher in group 1 than in the other groups. There were no significant differences in anesthetic recovery times between groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that either acepromazine or medetomidine could be used in combination with buprenorphine for premedication of dogs anesthetized with propofol and isoflurane for routine surgical and diagnostic procedures. Arterial blood pressure was better maintained with the medetomidine-buprenorphine combinations, but tissue perfusion was not investigated.

Abstract

Objective—To assess sedative and cardiopulmonary effects of premedication with a medetomidine-buprenorphine or acepromazine-buprenorphine combination in dogs anesthetized with propofol and isoflurane.

Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.

Animals—90 dogs undergoing routine surgical and diagnostic procedures.

Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 premedication groups: group 1 (acepromazine, 0.03 mg/kg [0.014 mg/lb], IM; buprenorphine, 0.02 mg/kg [0.009 mg/lb], IM), 2 (medetomidine, 5 μg/kg [2.3 μg/lb], IM; buprenorphine, 0.02 mg/kg, IM), or 3 (medetomidine, 10 μg/kg [4.5 μg/lb], IM; buprenorphine, 0.02 mg/kg, IM). Anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. Simple descriptive scores for sedation were assigned 15 minutes (groups 2 and 3) and 30 minutes (group 1) after premedication administration. Basic cardiopulmonary data were recorded throughout the anesthetic period. Times to recovery from anesthesia were recorded.

Results—Sedation scores did not differ significantly among groups. Mean and diastolic blood pressures were significantly lower and heart rate was significantly higher in group 1 than in the other groups. Mean end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 was significantly lower and respiratory rate was significantly higher in group 1 than in the other groups. There were no significant differences in anesthetic recovery times between groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that either acepromazine or medetomidine could be used in combination with buprenorphine for premedication of dogs anesthetized with propofol and isoflurane for routine surgical and diagnostic procedures. Arterial blood pressure was better maintained with the medetomidine-buprenorphine combinations, but tissue perfusion was not investigated.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Grint's present address is Animal Pain and Behavior Group, University of Bristol, Langford, Bristol, BS40 5DU, England.

Supported by Pfizer UK.

Presented as a poster at the Association of Veterinary Anaesthetist's Spring Meeting, Liverpool, England, April 2006.

The authors thank Liza Ebeck for assistance with medication administration.

Address correspondence to Dr. Dugdale (alexd@liv.ac.uk).