• 1.

    Schantz P, Steurer F, Jackson J, et al. Emergence of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs in North America, in Proceedings. Int Leishmaniasis Forum 2001;4-16.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Grosjean NL, Vrable RA, Murphy AJ, et al. Seroprevalence of antibodies against Leishmania spp among dogs in the United States. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003; 222:603-606.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Duprey ZH, Steurer FJ, Rooney JA, et al. Canine visceral leishmaniasis, United States and Canada, 2000-2003. Emerg Infect Dis 2006; 12:440-446.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Courtenay O, Quinnell RJ, Garcez LM, et al. Infecetiousness in a cohort of Brazilian dogs: why culling fails to control visceral leishmaniasis in areas of high transmission. J Infect Dis 2002; 1867:1314-1320.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Gaskin AA, Schantz PM, Jackson J, et al. Visceral leishmaniasis in a New York Foxhound kennel. J Vet Intern Med 2002; 16:34-44.

  • 6.

    Schantz PM, Steurer FJ, Duprey ZH, et al. Autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis in dogs in North America (Erratum published in J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006; 228:727). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005; 226:1316-1322.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Travi BL, Cerro H, Cadena H, et al. Canine leishmaniasis: dog infectivity to sand fies from nonendemic areas. Res Vet Sci 2002; 72:83-86.

  • 8.

    Coutinho MTZ, Bueno LL, Sterzik A, et al. Participation of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the epidemiology of canine visceral leishmaniasis. Vet Parasitol 2005; 128:149-155.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Andrade HM, De Toledo VP, Marques V, et al. Leishmania chagasi is not vertically transmitted in dogs. Vet Parasitol 2002; 103:71-81.

  • 10.

    Rosypal AC, Troy GC, Zajac AM, et al. Transplacental transmission of a North American isolate of Leishmania infantum in a experimentally infected beagle. J Parasitol 2005; 91:970-972.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Masucci M, De Majo M, Contarino RB, et al. Canine leishmaniasis in the newborn puppy. Vet Res Commun 2003; 27:771-774.

  • 12.

    Gibson-Corley KN, Hostetter JM, Hostetter SJ, et al. Disseminated Leishmania infantum infection in two sibling foxhounds due to possible vertical transmission. Can Vet J 2008; 49:1005-1008.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Rosypal AC, Lindsay DS. Non-sand fly transmission of a North American isolate of Leishmania infantum in experimentally Infected BALB/C mice. J Parasitol 2005; 91:1113-1115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Silva FL, Oliveira RG, Silva TM, et al. Venereal transmission of canine visceral leishmaniasis. Vet Parasitol 2009; 160:55-59.

  • 15.

    Owens SD, Oakley DA, Marryott K, et al. Transmission of visceral leishmaniasis through blood transfusions from English Foxhounds to anemic dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001; 219:1076-1083.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Giger U, Oakley DA, Owens SD, et al. Leishmania donovani transmission by packed RBC transfusion to anemic dogs in the United States. Transfusion 2002; 42:381-383.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Anderson DC, Buckner RG, Glenn BL, et al. Endemic canine leischmaniasis. Vet Pathol 1980; 17:94-96.

  • 18.

    Rodríguez-Cortés A, Fernandez-Bellón H, Ramis A, et al. Leishmania-specific isotype levels and their relationship with specific cell-mediated immunity parameters in canine leishmaniasis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2007; 116:190-198.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Leishmaniasis in a dog native to Colorado

Kate S. Freeman DVM, MEM1, Matthew D. Miller DVM, MS, DACVIM2, Edward B. Breitschwerdt DVM, DACVIM3, and Michael R. Lappin DVM, PhD, DACVIM4
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80526.
  • | 2 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80526.
  • | 3 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27608.
  • | 4 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80526.

Abstract

Case Description—A 1-year-old 32.5-kg (71.5-lb) sexually intact male foxhound-Treeing Walker Coonhound cross was evaluated because of a 2.5-month history of dermatologic lesions, weight loss, and diarrhea.

Clinical Findings—Physical examination revealed muscle wasting, lymphadenopathy, and multifocal pruritic dermatologic lesions of alopecia, thickening, erythema, and follicular casting. Hematologic and serum biochemical analyses revealed nonregenerative anemia, mono-cytosis, hypercalcemia, hyperproteinemia, and hyperglobulinemia. Proteinuria was identified on urinalysis. Hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and diffuse abdominal lymphadenomegaly were detected on abdominal ultrasonography. A diagnosis of leishmaniasis was confirmed by ELISA detection of serum antibodies against Leishmania spp, a high serum indirect fluorescent antibody titer (1:1,024) against Leishmania infantum, amplification of Leishmania DNA on PCR assay of a whole blood sample and a lymph node aspirate, and histologic identification of suspected Leishmania amastigotes in skin specimens. In addition, the dog had a low CD4+:CD8+ lymphocyte ratio of 1:1.

Treatment and Outcome—The dog was euthanized because of the severity of leishmaniasis and poor prognosis. This dog was from a litter of 10 puppies that included 4 stillborn puppies, 2 puppies that died as neonates, and 1 littermate that was euthanized at 1 year of age because of a high serum antibody titer against Leishmania spp. Eventually the foxhound dam was euthanized because of a high serum antibody titer against Leishmania spp. The dog had been raised with an unaffected littermate, its sire, and an unrelated Treeing Walker Coonhound female that were seronegative for Leishmania infection.

Clinical Relevance—Although vertical disease transmission was suspected, it is possible that L infantum is now endemic in Colorado. Leishmaniasis should be considered in dogs with scaly dermatoses.

Abstract

Case Description—A 1-year-old 32.5-kg (71.5-lb) sexually intact male foxhound-Treeing Walker Coonhound cross was evaluated because of a 2.5-month history of dermatologic lesions, weight loss, and diarrhea.

Clinical Findings—Physical examination revealed muscle wasting, lymphadenopathy, and multifocal pruritic dermatologic lesions of alopecia, thickening, erythema, and follicular casting. Hematologic and serum biochemical analyses revealed nonregenerative anemia, mono-cytosis, hypercalcemia, hyperproteinemia, and hyperglobulinemia. Proteinuria was identified on urinalysis. Hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and diffuse abdominal lymphadenomegaly were detected on abdominal ultrasonography. A diagnosis of leishmaniasis was confirmed by ELISA detection of serum antibodies against Leishmania spp, a high serum indirect fluorescent antibody titer (1:1,024) against Leishmania infantum, amplification of Leishmania DNA on PCR assay of a whole blood sample and a lymph node aspirate, and histologic identification of suspected Leishmania amastigotes in skin specimens. In addition, the dog had a low CD4+:CD8+ lymphocyte ratio of 1:1.

Treatment and Outcome—The dog was euthanized because of the severity of leishmaniasis and poor prognosis. This dog was from a litter of 10 puppies that included 4 stillborn puppies, 2 puppies that died as neonates, and 1 littermate that was euthanized at 1 year of age because of a high serum antibody titer against Leishmania spp. Eventually the foxhound dam was euthanized because of a high serum antibody titer against Leishmania spp. The dog had been raised with an unaffected littermate, its sire, and an unrelated Treeing Walker Coonhound female that were seronegative for Leishmania infection.

Clinical Relevance—Although vertical disease transmission was suspected, it is possible that L infantum is now endemic in Colorado. Leishmaniasis should be considered in dogs with scaly dermatoses.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Freeman's present address is Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.

Dr. Miller's present address is VCA Animal Diagnostic Clinic, 4444 Trinity Mills Rd, Ste 202, Dallas, TX 75287.

The authors thank Drs. Rod Rosychuk and Anne Avery for their assistance in data collection and interpretation of laboratory results.

Address correspondence to Dr. Freeman (Kate.S.Freeman@gmail.com).