Pees M, Krautwald-Junghanns ME. Evaluating and treating the cardiovascular system. In: Harisson GJ, Lightfoot T, eds. Clinical avian medicine. Vol 1. Palm Beach, Fla: Spix Publishing, 2006;379–394.
Garner MM, Raymond J. A retrospective study of atherosclerosis in birds, in Proceedings. Annu Assoc Avian Vet Conf Expo 2003;59–66.
Pilny AA. Retrospective of atherosclerosis in Psittacine birds: clinical and histopathologic findings in 31 cases, in Proceedings. Annu Assoc Avian Vet Conf Expo, 2004;349–351.
Bavelaar FJ, Beynen AC. Atherosclerosis in parrots: a review. Vet Q 2004;26:50–60.
Griminger P. Lipid metabolism. In: Sturkie PD, ed. Avian physiology. 2nd ed. New York: Springer-Verlag Inc, 1986;345–358.
St Leger J. Avian atherosclerosis. In: Fowler ME, Miller RE, eds. Zoo and wildlife animal medicine: current therapy. St Louis: Saunders-Elsevier Inc, 2008;200–205.
British Nutrition Foundation. Unsaturated fatty acids and atherosclerosis. In: Unsaturated fatty acids: nutritional and physiological significance. New York: Chapman & Hall, 1992;87–91.
Hermier D, Saadoun A, Salichon MR, et al. Plasma lipoproteins and liver lipids in two breeds of geese with different susceptibility to hepatic steatosis: changes induced by development and force-feeding. Lipids 1991;26:331–339.
Lizenko MV, Regerand TG, Bakhirev AM, et al. Content of the main lipid components in blood serum lipoproteins of human and of some animal species. J Evol Biochem Physiol 2007;43:183–190.
Dashti N, Kelley JL, Thayer RH, et al. Concurrent inductions of avian hepatic lipogenesis, plasma lipids, and plasma apolipo-protein B by estrogen. J Lipid Res 1983;24:368–380.
Simons LA, Dwyer T, Simons J, et al. Chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants in coronary artery disease: a case-control study. Atherosclerosis 1987;65:181–189.
Zilversmit DB. Atherogenesis: a postprandial phenomenon. Circulation 1979;60:473–485.
Fabricant CG, Fabricant J. Atherosclerosis induced by infection with Marek's disease herpesvirus in chickens. Am Heart J 1999;138:S465–S468.
Clench MH. The avian cecum: update and motility review. J Exp Zool 1999;283:441–447.
Noble RC, Connor K. A unique lipid pattern associated with the gall bladder bile of the chick embryo. Lipids 1984;19:64–67.
Klasing KC. Digestion of food. In: Comparative avian nutrition. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998;36–70.
McWilliams SR, Guglielmo C, Pierce B, et al. Flying, fasting, and feeding in birds during migration: a nutritional and physiological ecology perspective. J Avian Biol 2004;35:377–393.
Leveille GA, Romsos DR, Yeh YY, et al. Lipid biosynthesis in the chick. A consideration of site of synthesis, influence of diet and possible regulatory mechanisms. Poult Sci 1975;54:1075–1093.
O'Hea EK, Leveille GA. Significance of adipose tissue and liver as sites of fatty acid synthesis in the pig and the efficiency of utilization of various substrates for lipogenesis. J Nutr 1969;99:338–344.
Bergen WG, Mersmann HJ. Comparative aspects of lipid metabolism: impact on contemporary research and use of animal models. J Nutr 2005;135:2499–2502.
Klasing KC. Lipids. In: Comparative avian nutrition. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998;171–200.
Godin DV, Garnett ME, Cheng KM, et al. Sex-related alterations in antioxidant status and susceptibility to atherosclerosis in Japanese quail. Can J Cardiol 1995;11:945–951.
British Nutrition Foundation. Unsaturated fatty acids and plasma lipids. In: Unsaturated fatty acids: nutritional and physiological significance. New York: Chapman & Hall, 1992;76–86.
Griminger P, Fisher H, Weiss HS. Food restriction and spontaneous avian atherosclerosis. Life Sci 1963;6:410–414.
Weiss TJ, Mattil KF. The relationship of diet to life expectancy and atherosclerosis. J Am Oil Chem Soc 1957;34:503–504.
Das UN. Essential fatty acids: biochemistry, physiology, and pathology. Biotechnol J 2006;1:420–439.
Htin NN, Zulkifli I, Hair-Bejo M, et al. Effects dietary linoleic and linolenic fatty acids on immune response and resistance to infectious bursal disease (IBD) in broiler chickens under heat stress conditions. Arch Geflugelk 2007;71:258–266.
Serhan CN, Clish CB, Brannon J, et al. Anti-microinflammatory lipid signals generated from dietary n-3 fatty acids via cyclooxygenase-2 and transcellular processing: a novel mechanism for NSAID and n-3 PUFA therapeutic actions. J Phys Pharm 2000;51:643–654.
Brenna JT, Salem N Jr, Sinclair AJ, et al. α-Linolenic acid supplementation and conversion to n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in humans. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2009;80:85–91.
Ehringer W, Belcher D, Wassall SR, et al. A comparison of the effects of linolenic (18:3Ω3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6Ω3) acids on phospholipid bilayers. Chem Phys Lipids 1990;54:79–88.
Harper CR, Jacobson TA. The fats of life: the role of omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of coronary heart disease. Arch Intern Med 2001;161:2185–2192.
Schmitz G, Ecker J. The opposing effects of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Prog Lipid Res 2008;47:147–155.
Bölükbaşi ŞC, Erhan MK. Effect of semi replacement of dietary olive oil and corn oil with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on broiler performance, serum lipoprotein levels, fatty acid composition in muscles and meat quality during refrigerated storage. J Anim Vet Adv 2007;6:262–266.
Cherian G, Gonzalez D, Ryuk S, et al. Long-term feeding of conjugated linoleic acid and fish oil to laying hens: effects on hepatic histopathology, egg quality, and lipid components. J Appl Poult Res 2007;16:420–428.
Gurr MI, Harwood JL. Dietary lipids: implications for health and disease. In: Lipid biochemistry: an introduction. 4th ed. New York: Chapman & Hall, 1991;163–245.
DeFilippis AP, Sperling LS. Understanding omega-3's. Am Heart J 2006;151:564–570.
Anderson BM, Ma DWL. Are all n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids created equal? Lipids Health Dis 2009;8:33.
Calder PC. Dietary modification of inflammation with lipids. Proc Nutr Soc 2002;61:345–358.
Budowski P, Crawford MA. Effect of dietary linoleic and α-linolenic acids on the fatty acid composition of brain lipids in the young chick. Prog Lipid Res 1986;25:615–618.
British Nutrition Foundation. Functions of unsaturated fatty acids. In: Unsaturated fatty acids: nutritional and physiological significance. New York: Chapman & Hall, 1992;48–62.
Brenna JT. Efficiency of conversion of α-linolenic acid to long chain n-3 fatty acids in man. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2002;5:127–132.
Bond JM, Julian RJ, Squires EJ. Effect of dietary flaxseed on broiler growth, erythrocyte deformability, and fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes. Can J Anim Sci 1997;77:279–286.
Leeson S, Caston L, Namkung H. Effect of dietary lutein and flax on performance, egg composition and liver status of laying hens. Can J Anim Sci 2007;87:365–372.
Bavelaar FJ, Beynen AC. Relationship between dietary fatty acid composition and either melting point or fatty acid profile of adipose tissue in broilers. Meat Sci 2003;64:133–140.
Leeson S, Summers JD, Caston LJ. Response of layers to dietary flaxseed according to body weight classification at maturity. J Appl Poult Res 2000;9:297–302.
Krasica B, Kulasek GW, Swierczewska E, et al. Body gains and fatty acid composition in carcasses of broilers fed diets enriched with full-fat rapeseed and/or flaxseed. Arch Geflugelk 2000;64:61–69.
Javadi M, Geelen MJH, Lemmens AG, et al. The influence of dietary linoleic and α-linolenic acid on body composition and the activities of key enzymes of hepatic lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation in mice. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2007;91:11–18.
Wendland E, Farmer A, Glasziou P, et al. Effect of α-linolenic acid on cardiovascular risk markers: a system review. Heart 2006;92:166–169.
Azcona JO, Schang MJ, Garcia PT, et al. Omega-3 enriched broiler meat: the influence of dietary α-linolenic-ω-3 fatty acid sources on growth, performance and meat fatty acid composition. Can J Anim Sci 2008;88:257–269.
Austria JA, Richard MN, Chahine MN, et al. Bioavailability of alpha-linolenic acid in subjects after ingestion of three different forms of flaxseed. J Am Coll Nutr 2008;27:214–221.