• 1.

    Basso C, Fox PR, Meurs KM, et al. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy causing sudden cardiac death in Boxer dogs. Circulation 2004;109:11801185.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Meurs KM, Spier AW, Miller MW, et al. Familial ventricular arrhythmias in Boxers. J Vet Intern Med 1999;13:437439.

  • 3.

    Harpster NK. Boxer cardiomyopathy. In: Kirk RW, ed. Current veterinary therapy VIII: small animal practice. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1983;329337.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Meurs KM, Spier AW, Wright NA, et al. Comparison of in-hospital versus 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography for detection of ventricular premature complexes in mature Boxers. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:222224.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Meurs KM, Spier AW, Hamlin RL, et al. Use of ambulatory electrocardiography for detection of ventricular premature complexes in healthy dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:12911292.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Spier AW, Meurs KM. Evaluation of spontaneous variability in the frequency of ventricular arrhythmias in Boxers with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:538541.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Hall LW, Dunn JK, Delaney M, et al. Ambulatory electrocardiography in dogs. Vet Rec 1991;129:213216.

  • 8.

    Ulloa HM, Houston BJ, Altrogge DM. Arrhythmia prevalence during ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring of Beagles. Am J Vet Res 1995;56:275281.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Ambulatory electrocardiographic evaluation of clinically normal adult Boxers

Joshua A. Stern DVM1, Kathryn M. Meurs DVM, PhD, DACVIM2, Alan W. Spier DVM, PhD DACVIM3, Shianne L. Koplitz DVM, PhD, DACVIM4, and Ryan D. Baumwart DVM, DACVIM5
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164
  • | 3 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.
  • | 4 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.
  • | 5 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of ventricular arrhythmias in clinically normal adult Boxers.

Design—Prospective cross-sectional study.

Animals—301 Boxers (181 females and 120 males) > 1 year old with echocardiographically normal systolic function and no history of syncope or congestive heart failure.

Procedures—Physical examination, which included echocardiography, was performed on all dogs. A 24-hour ambulatory ECG was performed on each dog, and results were evaluated to assess ventricular arrhythmias. Statistical evaluation was performed to determine correlations between the total number of ventricular premature complexes (VPCs)/24 h, grade of ventricular arrhythmia, and age of the dogs.

Results—Age of dogs ranged from 1 to 16 years (median, 4 years). Number of VPCs/24 h in each dog ranged from 0 to 62,622 (median, 6 VPCs/24 h). Grade of arrhythmias ranged from 0 to 3 (median, 1). Age was correlated significantly with number of VPCs/24 h (r = 0.43) and with grade of arrhythmia (r = 0.37). Number of VPCs/24 h was significantly correlated with grade of arrhythmia (r = 0.82).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Clinically normal adult Boxers generally had < 91 VPCs/24 h and an arrhythmia grade < 2. Boxers with > 91 VPCs/24 h were uncommon and may have represented dogs with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy or other disease processes that could have resulted in the development of ventricular arrhythmias.

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of ventricular arrhythmias in clinically normal adult Boxers.

Design—Prospective cross-sectional study.

Animals—301 Boxers (181 females and 120 males) > 1 year old with echocardiographically normal systolic function and no history of syncope or congestive heart failure.

Procedures—Physical examination, which included echocardiography, was performed on all dogs. A 24-hour ambulatory ECG was performed on each dog, and results were evaluated to assess ventricular arrhythmias. Statistical evaluation was performed to determine correlations between the total number of ventricular premature complexes (VPCs)/24 h, grade of ventricular arrhythmia, and age of the dogs.

Results—Age of dogs ranged from 1 to 16 years (median, 4 years). Number of VPCs/24 h in each dog ranged from 0 to 62,622 (median, 6 VPCs/24 h). Grade of arrhythmias ranged from 0 to 3 (median, 1). Age was correlated significantly with number of VPCs/24 h (r = 0.43) and with grade of arrhythmia (r = 0.37). Number of VPCs/24 h was significantly correlated with grade of arrhythmia (r = 0.82).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Clinically normal adult Boxers generally had < 91 VPCs/24 h and an arrhythmia grade < 2. Boxers with > 91 VPCs/24 h were uncommon and may have represented dogs with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy or other disease processes that could have resulted in the development of ventricular arrhythmias.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Stern's present address is Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164.

Dr. Spier's present address is Florida Veterinary Specialists, 3000 Busch Lake Blvd, Tampa, FL 33614.

Dr. Koplitz's present address is Wisconsin Veterinary Referral Center, 360 Bluemound Rd, Waukesha, WI 53188.

Dr. Baumwart's present address is WestVet Emergency and Specialty Center, 5019 N Sawyer Ave, Boise, ID 83714.

Supported by the American Kennel Club Canine Health Foundation and the American Boxer Charitable Foundation.

Presented in part at the 17th American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Forum, Chicago, June 1999.

Address correspondence to Dr. Meurs (meurs@vetmed.wsu.edu).