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Comparison of the effects of intravenous administration of isotonic and hypertonic sodium bicarbonate solutions on venous acid-base status in dehydrated calves with strong ion acidosis

Alparslan CoskunDepartment of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Selcuk, 42070, Konya, Turkey.

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Ismail SenDepartment of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Selcuk, 42070, Konya, Turkey.

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Hasan GuzelbektesDepartment of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Selcuk, 42070, Konya, Turkey.

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Mahmut OkDepartment of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Selcuk, 42070, Konya, Turkey.

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Kursat TurgutDepartment of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Selcuk, 42070, Konya, Turkey.

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Sebnem CanikliDepartment of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Selcuk, 42070, Konya, Turkey.

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Abstract

Objective—To compare the effects of IV administration of isotonic (1.3%) and hypertonic (8.4%) sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) solutions on acid-base status in dehydrated calves with strong ion (metabolic) acidosis.

Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.

Animals—50 calves with diarrhea and severe dehydration.

Procedures—Calves were randomly assigned to receive isotonic NaHCO3 solution (65 mL/kg [29.5 mL/lb], IV) over 3 hours (n = 30) or hypertonic NaHCO3 solution (10 mL/kg [4.5 mL/lb], IV) over 20 minutes (20). Blood samples were collected at 0 hours (immediately prior to solution administration) and at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 hours after administration began. Samples were submitted for blood gas analysis, serum biochemical analysis, and determination of blood Na+, K+, and Cl concentrations and percentage change in plasma volume.

Results—Calves that received isotonic NaHCO3 solution had an increase in venous blood pH, HCO3 concentration, and base excess; a small, transient increase in Po2; and no change in Pco2 within 4 hours after administration began. Calves that received hypertonic NaHCO3 solution had an immediate increase in venous blood pH, HCO3 concentration, and base excess; a small, transient increase Pco2; and no change in Po2 within 0.5 hours after treatment began. Plasma volume increased to a greater extent following administration of isotonic solution than after administration of hypertonic solution.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IV administration of 8.4% NaHCO3 solution in small volumes provided fast and effective improvement of severe acid-base abnormalities in calves with severe strong ion acidosis but did not improve hydration status as well as administration of a larger volume of isotonic NaHCO3 solution.

Abstract

Objective—To compare the effects of IV administration of isotonic (1.3%) and hypertonic (8.4%) sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) solutions on acid-base status in dehydrated calves with strong ion (metabolic) acidosis.

Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.

Animals—50 calves with diarrhea and severe dehydration.

Procedures—Calves were randomly assigned to receive isotonic NaHCO3 solution (65 mL/kg [29.5 mL/lb], IV) over 3 hours (n = 30) or hypertonic NaHCO3 solution (10 mL/kg [4.5 mL/lb], IV) over 20 minutes (20). Blood samples were collected at 0 hours (immediately prior to solution administration) and at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 hours after administration began. Samples were submitted for blood gas analysis, serum biochemical analysis, and determination of blood Na+, K+, and Cl concentrations and percentage change in plasma volume.

Results—Calves that received isotonic NaHCO3 solution had an increase in venous blood pH, HCO3 concentration, and base excess; a small, transient increase in Po2; and no change in Pco2 within 4 hours after administration began. Calves that received hypertonic NaHCO3 solution had an immediate increase in venous blood pH, HCO3 concentration, and base excess; a small, transient increase Pco2; and no change in Po2 within 0.5 hours after treatment began. Plasma volume increased to a greater extent following administration of isotonic solution than after administration of hypertonic solution.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IV administration of 8.4% NaHCO3 solution in small volumes provided fast and effective improvement of severe acid-base abnormalities in calves with severe strong ion acidosis but did not improve hydration status as well as administration of a larger volume of isotonic NaHCO3 solution.

Contributor Notes

Supported by a grant from SU Scientific Research Office.

Address correspondence to Dr. Sen (ismailsen@selcuk.edu.tr).