• 1.

    Ettlinger JJ, Palmer JE, Benson C. Bacteria found on intravenous catheters removed from horses. Vet Rec 1992;130:248249.

  • 2.

    Divers TJ. Prevention and treatment of thrombosis, phlebitis, and laminitis in horses with gastrointestinal diseases. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2003;19:779790.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Lankveld DP, Ensink JM, van Dijk P, et al. Factors influencing the occurrence of thrombophlebitis after post-surgical long-term intravenous catheterization of colic horses: a study of 38 cases. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 2001;48:545552.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Dolente BA, Beech J, Lindborg S, et al. Evaluation of risk factors for development of catheter-associated jugular thrombo-phlebitis in horses: 50 cases (1993–1998). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:11341141.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Gabel AA. Intravenous injections—complications and their prevention, in Proceedings. 23rd Annu Conv Am Assoc Equine Pract 1977;2938.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Morris DD. Thrombophlebitis in horses: the contribution of hemostatic dysfunction to pathogenesis. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 1989;11:13861393.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Gardner SY, Reef VB, Spencer PA. Ultrasonographic evaluation of horses with thrombophlebitis of the jugular vein: 46 cases (1985–1988). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1991;199:370373.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Tan RH, Dart AJ, Dowling BA. Catheters: a review of the selection, utilisation and complications of catheters for peripheral venous access. Aust Vet J 2003;81:136139.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Byars TD, Davis D, Divers TJ. Coagulation in the equine intensive-care patient. Clin Tech Equine Pract 2003;2:178187.

  • 10.

    Spurlock SL, Spurlock GH, Parker G, et al. Long-term jugular vein catheterization in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1990;196:425430.

  • 11.

    Bayly WM, Vale BH. Intravenous catheterization and associated problems in the horse. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 1982;4:S227S237.

  • 12.

    Spurlock SL, Spurlock GH. Risk factors of catheter related complications. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 1990;12:241245.

  • 13.

    Traub-Dargatz JL, Dargatz DA. A retrospective study of vein thrombosis in horses treated with intravenous fluids in a veterinary teaching hospital. J Vet Intern Med 1994;8:264266.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Ryu SH, Kim JG, Bak UB, et al. A hematogenic pleuropneumonia caused by postoperative septic thrombophlebitis in a Thoroughbred gelding. J Vet Sci 2004;5:7577.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Deem DA. Complications associated with the use of intravenous catheters in large animals. Calif Vet 1981;6:1924.

  • 16.

    Norman TE, Chaffin MK, Perris EE, et al. Massive pulmonary thromboembolism in six horses. Equine Vet J 2008;40:514517.

  • 17.

    Cambridge H, Lees P, Hooke RE, et al. Antithrombotic actions of aspirin in the horse. Equine Vet J 1991;23:123127.

  • 18.

    Jarvis GE, Evans RJ. Platelet-activating factor and not thromboxane A2 is an important mediator of endotoxin-induced platelet aggregation in equine heparinised whole blood in vitro. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 1996;7:194198.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Evaluation of athletic performance in horses with jugular vein thrombophlebitis: 91 cases (1988–2005)

Peggy Moreau DVM1 and Jean-Pierre Lavoie DVM, DACVIM2
View More View Less
  • 1 Département de Sciences Cliniques, Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC J2S 7C6, Canada.
  • | 2 Département de Sciences Cliniques, Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC J2S 7C6, Canada.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of thrombophlebitis of 1 or both jugular veins on athletic performance of horses.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—91 horses with jugular vein thrombophlebitis.

Procedures—Medical records of horses with jugular vein thrombophlebitis examined between 1988 and 2005 were reviewed for signalment, history, clinical signs, diagnosis, and treatment. Performance was evaluated in 2 ways. A questionnaire was used to obtain a subjective assessment from the owner or trainer of the horse's performance after thrombophlebitis, compared with the performance before thrombophlebitis. Racing records from before and after thrombophlebitis were also evaluated.

Results—Thrombophlebitis was diagnosed in 37 horses at the time of admission (group 1), and 54 horses developed thrombophlebitis during hospitalization for an unrelated medical condition (group 2). Twenty-seven of 81 (33%) owners answered the questionnaire, and racing records were available for 31 horses. Performance data were available for 48 horses. Owners reported that all nonracing horses, except 1, had equivalent or better performances after discharge. Twenty-six of 31 (84%) Standardbreds resumed racing; in these horses, there was no significant difference between racing times before and after thrombophlebitis. No significant difference in performance was detected regardless of the primary disease, whether a horse had unilateral or bilateral thrombophlebitis, or the treatment administered.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that the athletic performance of horses used for nonracing events was not affected by thrombophlebitis. Thrombophlebitis in racing Standardbreds was associated with a decreased chance of return to racing; however, performance was not impaired in those that resumed racing.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of thrombophlebitis of 1 or both jugular veins on athletic performance of horses.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—91 horses with jugular vein thrombophlebitis.

Procedures—Medical records of horses with jugular vein thrombophlebitis examined between 1988 and 2005 were reviewed for signalment, history, clinical signs, diagnosis, and treatment. Performance was evaluated in 2 ways. A questionnaire was used to obtain a subjective assessment from the owner or trainer of the horse's performance after thrombophlebitis, compared with the performance before thrombophlebitis. Racing records from before and after thrombophlebitis were also evaluated.

Results—Thrombophlebitis was diagnosed in 37 horses at the time of admission (group 1), and 54 horses developed thrombophlebitis during hospitalization for an unrelated medical condition (group 2). Twenty-seven of 81 (33%) owners answered the questionnaire, and racing records were available for 31 horses. Performance data were available for 48 horses. Owners reported that all nonracing horses, except 1, had equivalent or better performances after discharge. Twenty-six of 31 (84%) Standardbreds resumed racing; in these horses, there was no significant difference between racing times before and after thrombophlebitis. No significant difference in performance was detected regardless of the primary disease, whether a horse had unilateral or bilateral thrombophlebitis, or the treatment administered.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that the athletic performance of horses used for nonracing events was not affected by thrombophlebitis. Thrombophlebitis in racing Standardbreds was associated with a decreased chance of return to racing; however, performance was not impaired in those that resumed racing.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Moreau's present address is Clinique Equine de la Boisrie, 61500 Chailloué, France.

The authors thank Guy Beauchamp for assistance with the statistical analysis.

Address correspondence to Dr. Lavoie (jean-pierre.lavoie@umontreal.ca).