• 1.

    Lund EM, Armstrong PJ, Kirk CA, et al. Health status and population characteristics of dogs and cats examined at private veterinary practices in the United States. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:13361341.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Peña MA, Leiva M. Canine conjunctivitis and blepharitis. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2008;38:233249.

  • 3.

    Imes GD, Lloyd JC, Brightman MP. Disseminated prothothecosis in a dog. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 1977;44:16.

  • 4.

    Davidson MG, Breitschwerdt EB, Nasisse MP, et al. Ocular manifestations of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1989;194:777781.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Whitley RD. Canine and feline primary ocular bacterial infections. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2000;30:11511167.

  • 6.

    Hoelzle K, Wittenbrink MM, Corboz L, et al. Chlamydophila abortus-induced keratoconjunctivitis in a dog. Vet Rec 2005;157:632633.

  • 7.

    Rossi L, Rigano C, Tomio E, et al. Use of sustained-release moxidectin to prevent eyeworm (Thelazia callipaeda) infection in dogs. Vet Rec 2007;161:820821.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Labrecque O, Sylvestre D, Messier S. Systemic Crytococcus albidus infection in a Doberman Pinscher. J Vet Diagn Invest 2005;17:598600.

  • 9.

    Lan NT, Yamaguchi R, Furuya Y, et al. Pathogenesis and phylogenetic analyses of canine distemper virus strain 007Lm, a new isolate in dogs. Vet Microbiol 2005;110:197207.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Cooper RJ, Hallett R, Tullo AB, et al. The epidemiology of adenovirus infections in Greater Manchester, UK 1982–6. Epidemiol Infect 2000;125:333345.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Wishart MS, Darougar S, Viswalingam ND. Recurrent herpes simplex virus ocular infection: epidemiological and clinical features. Br J Ophthalmol 1987;71:669672.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Nasisse MP, Guy JS, Davidson MG, et al. Experimental ocular herpesvirus infection in the cat. Sites of replication, clinical features and effects of corticosteroid administration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1989;30:17581768.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Cai Y, Fukushi H, Koyasu S, et al. An etiological investigation of domestic cats with conjunctivitis and upper respiratory tract disease in Japan. J Vet Med Sci 2002;64:215219.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Callanan JJ, Thompson H, Toth SR, et al. Clinical and pathological findings in feline immunodeficiency virus experimental infection. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 1992;35:313.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Scott FW, Kahn DE, Gillespie JH. Feline viruses: isolation, characterization, and pathogenicity of a feline reovirus. Am J Vet Res 1970;31:1120.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Fouchier RA, Schneeberger PM, Rozendaal FW, et al. Avian influenza A virus (H7N7) associated with human conjunctivitis and a fatal case of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2004;101:13561361.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Asnis DS, Conetta R, Waldman G, et al. The West Nile virus encephalitis outbreak in the United States (1999–2000): from Flushing, New York, to beyond its borders. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2001;951:161171.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Chang CH, Lin KH, Anderson R. Towards an in vitro model for acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis: cytokine-mediated vascular endothelial cell activation triggered by enterovirus type 70 infection. J Clin Virol 2004;30:1923.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Hendricks RL, Tumpey TM. Contribution of virus and immune factors to herpes simplex virus type 1-induced corneal pathology. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1990;31:19291939.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Curtis R, Jemmett JE, Furminger IG. The pathogenicity of an attenuated strain of canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2). Vet Rec 1978;103:380381.

  • 21.

    Martin CL. Conjunctivitis. Differential diagnosis and treatment. Vet Clin North Am 1973;3:367383.

  • 22.

    Anvik JO. Clinical consideration of canine herpesvirus infection. Vet Med (Praha) 1991;86:394403.

  • 23.

    Nell B, Gellbmann W, Mostl K. Occurrence of bacteria, fungi, Chlamydia, mycoplasma, herpesvirus, and adenovirus in dogs with follicular conjunctivitis, erosive keratitis, and chronic superficial keratitis [in German]. Wien Tierarztl Monatsschr 2000;87:314321.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Jackson JA, Corstvet RE. Study of nictitating membranes and genitalia of dogs with reference to lymphofollicular hyperplasia and its cause. Am J Vet Res 1980;41:18141822.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Carmichael LE, Squire RA, Krook L. Clinical and pathologic features of a fatal viral disease of newborn pups. Am J Vet Res 1965;26:803814.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Karpas A, Garcia FG, Calvo F, et al. Experimental production of canine tracheobronchitis (kennel cough) with canine herpesvirus isolated from naturally infected dogs. Am J Vet Res 1968;29:12511257.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Hill H, Maré CJ. Genital disease in dogs caused by canine herpesvirus. Am J Vet Res 1974;35:669672.

  • 28.

    Ledbetter EC, Dubovi EJ, Kim SG, et al. Experimental primary ocular canine herpesvirus-1 infection in adult dogs (Erratum published in Am J Vet Res 2009;70:740). Am J Vet Res 2009;70:513521.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Miyoshi M, Ishii Y, Takiguchi M, et al. Detection of canine herpesvirus DNA in the ganglionic neurons and the lymph node lymphocytes of latently infected dogs. J Vet Med Sci 1999;61:375379.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Poste G, King N. Isolation of a herpesvirus from the canine genital tract: association with infertility, abortion and stillbirths. Vet Rec 1971;88:229233.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Okuda Y, Ishida K, Hashimoto A, et al. Virus reactivation in bitches with a medical history of herpesvirus infection. Am J Vet Res 1993;54:551554.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Ledbetter EC, Riis RC, Kern TJ, et al. Corneal ulceration associated with naturally occurring canine herpesvirus-1 infection in two adult dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006;229:376384.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Stiles J, McDermott M, Bigsby D, et al. Use of nested polymerase chain reaction to identify feline herpesvirus in ocular tissue from clinically normal cats and cats with corneal sequestra or conjunctivitis. Am J Vet Res 1997;58:338342.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Tham KM, Horner GW, Hunter R. Isolation and identification of canine adenovirus type-2 from the upper respiratory tract of a dog. N Z Vet J 1998;46:102105.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Ditchfield J, Macpherson LW, Zbitnew A. Association of a canine adenovirus (Toronto A26/61) with an outbreak of laryngotracheitis (“kennel cough”): a preliminary report. Can Vet J 1962;3:238247.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Swango LJ, Wooding WL Jr, Binn LN. A comparison of the pathogenesis and antigenicity of infectious canine hepatitis virus and the A26-61 virus strain (Toronto). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1970;156:16871696.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Bistner S. Allergic and immunologic-mediated diseases of the eye and adnexae. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1994;24:711734.

Advertisement

Virologic survey of dogs with naturally acquired idiopathic conjunctivitis

Eric C. LedbetterDepartment of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.

Search for other papers by Eric C. Ledbetter in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, DACVO
,
William E. HornbuckleDepartment of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.

Search for other papers by William E. Hornbuckle in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, DACVIM
, and
Edward J. DuboviDepartment of Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.

Search for other papers by Edward J. Dubovi in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD

Abstract

Objective—To determine the frequency of viral detection in conjunctival samples from client-owned domestic dogs with naturally acquired idiopathic conjunctivitis and to identify signalment, historical, and clinical findings positively associated with viral detection.

Design—Case-control study

Animals—30 dogs with naturally acquired idiopathic conjunctivitis and a control population of 30 dogs without ocular disease.

Procedures—Complete physical and ophthalmic examinations were performed for each dog. Conjunctival swab specimens were analyzed by use of virus isolation and PCR assays for the following viruses: canine adenovirus-2 (CAV-2), canine distemper virus, canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1), canine parainfuenza virus, canine respiratory coronavirus, infuenza A virus, and West Nile virus. Signalment, clinical, and historical information was recorded and compared between study groups.

Results—Viruses were detected by either virus isolation or PCR methods significantly more frequently in conjunctival samples from dogs with conjunctivitis (7/30 [23.3%]) than dogs without conjunctivitis (0/30 [0%]). Canine herpesvirus-1 was isolated from 2 conjunctival samples and detected by use of PCR assay in 5 conjunctival samples. Canine adenovirus-2 was isolated from 1 conjunctival sample and detected by use of PCR assay in 2 conjunctiva samples. Sexually intact dogs and frequent exposure to dogs outside the household were positively associated with viral detection in the conjunctivitis group

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that CHV-1 and CAV-2 are common etiologic agents of conjunctivitis in domestic dogs. Risk factors for viral conjunctivitis in dogs reflected increased exposure to other dogs and opportunities for contact with infectious secretions.

Abstract

Objective—To determine the frequency of viral detection in conjunctival samples from client-owned domestic dogs with naturally acquired idiopathic conjunctivitis and to identify signalment, historical, and clinical findings positively associated with viral detection.

Design—Case-control study

Animals—30 dogs with naturally acquired idiopathic conjunctivitis and a control population of 30 dogs without ocular disease.

Procedures—Complete physical and ophthalmic examinations were performed for each dog. Conjunctival swab specimens were analyzed by use of virus isolation and PCR assays for the following viruses: canine adenovirus-2 (CAV-2), canine distemper virus, canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1), canine parainfuenza virus, canine respiratory coronavirus, infuenza A virus, and West Nile virus. Signalment, clinical, and historical information was recorded and compared between study groups.

Results—Viruses were detected by either virus isolation or PCR methods significantly more frequently in conjunctival samples from dogs with conjunctivitis (7/30 [23.3%]) than dogs without conjunctivitis (0/30 [0%]). Canine herpesvirus-1 was isolated from 2 conjunctival samples and detected by use of PCR assay in 5 conjunctival samples. Canine adenovirus-2 was isolated from 1 conjunctival sample and detected by use of PCR assay in 2 conjunctiva samples. Sexually intact dogs and frequent exposure to dogs outside the household were positively associated with viral detection in the conjunctivitis group

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that CHV-1 and CAV-2 are common etiologic agents of conjunctivitis in domestic dogs. Risk factors for viral conjunctivitis in dogs reflected increased exposure to other dogs and opportunities for contact with infectious secretions.

Contributor Notes

Supported by the American Kennel Club Canine Health Foundation.

Address correspondence to Dr. Ledbetter (ec132@cornell.edu).