• 1.

    van der Vlugt-Meijer RH, Meij BP, van den Ingh TS, et al. Dynamic computed tomography of the pituitary gland in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. J Vet Intern Med 2003;17:773780.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    van der Vlugt-Meijer RH, Meij BP, Voorhout G. Dynamic computed tomographic evaluation of the pituitary gland in healthy dogs. Am J Vet Res 2004;65:15181524.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    van der Vlugt-Meijer RH, Meij BP, Voorhout G. Intraobserver and interobserver agreement, reproducibility, and accuracy of computed tomographic measurements of pituitary gland dimensions in healthy dogs. Am J Vet Res 2006;67:17501755.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    van der Vlugt-Meijer RH, Voorhout G, Meij BP. Imaging of the pituitary gland in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2002;197:8187.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Kooistra HS, Voorhout G, Mol JA, et al. Correlation between impairment of glucocorticoid feedback and the size of the pituitary gland in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. J Endocrinol 1997;152:387394.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Meij BP, Voorhout G, van den Ingh TS, et al. Results of transsphenoidal hypophysectomy in 52 dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. Vet Surg 1998;27:246261.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Meij BP, Voorhout G, Van den Ingh TS, et al. Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy in beagle dogs: evaluation of a microsurgical technique. Vet Surg 1997;26:295309.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Graham JP, Roberts GD, Newell SM. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of the normal canine pituitary gland. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2000;41:3540.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Kippenes H, Gavin PR, Kraft SL, et al. Mensuration of the normal pituitary gland from magnetic resonance images in 96 dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2001;42:130133.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    van der Vlugt-Meijer RH, Meij BP, Voorhout G. Thin-slice three-dimensional gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland in healthy dogs. Am J Vet Res 2006;67:18651872.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Bertoy EH, Feldman EC, Nelson RW, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in dogs with recently diagnosed but untreated pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1995;206:651656.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Duesberg CA, Feldman EC, Nelson RW, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of pituitary macrotumors in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1995;206:657662.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Guy RL, Benn JJ, Ayers AB, et al. A comparison of CT and MRI in the assessment of the pituitary and parasellar region. Clin Radiol 1991;43:156161.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Johnson MR, Hoare RD, Cox T, et al. The evaluation of patients with a suspected pituitary microadenoma: computer tomography compared to magnetic resonance imaging. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1992;36:335338.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Hanson JM, van 't HM, Voorhout G, et al. Efficacy of transsphenoidal hypophysectomy in treatment of dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. J Vet Intern Med 2005;19:687694.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Rijnberk A, van Wees A, Mol JA. Assessment of two tests for the diagnosis of canine hyperadrenocorticism. Vet Rec 1988;122:178180.

  • 17.

    Stolp R, Rijnberk A, Meijer JC, et al. Urinary corticoids in the diagnosis of canine hyperadrenocorticism. Res Vet Sci 1983;34:141144.

  • 18.

    Meij B, Voorhout G, Rijnberk A. Progress in transsphenoidal hypophysectomy for treatment of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism in dogs and cats. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2002;197:8996.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Hanson JM, Teske E, Voorhout G, et al. Prognostic factors for outcome after transsphenoidal hypophysectomy in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. J Neurosurg 2007;107:830840.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Bosje JT, Rijnberk A, Mol JA, et al. Plasma concentrations of ACTH precursors correlate with pituitary size and resistance to dexamethasone in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. Domest Anim Endocrinol 2002;22:201210.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Rijnberk A, Mol JA, Rothuizen J, et al. Circulating proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. Front Horm Res 1987;17:4860.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Voorhout G, Rijnberk A, Sjollema BE, et al. Nephrotomography and ultrasonography for the localization of hyperfunctioning adrenocortical tumors in dogs. Am J Vet Res 1990;51:12801285.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Meij BP. Hypophysectomy as a treatment for canine and feline Cushing's disease. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2001;31:10151041.

  • 24.

    Bertoy EH, Feldman EC, Nelson RW, et al. One-year follow-up evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:12681273.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Kurokawa H, Fujisawa I, Nakano Y, et al. Posterior lobe of the pituitary gland: correlation between signal intensity on T1-weighted MR images and vasopressin concentration. Radiology 1998;207:7983.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Brooks BS, el Gammal T, Allison JD, et al. Frequency and variation of the posterior pituitary bright signal on MR images. Am J Neuroradiol 1989;10:943948.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Colombo N, Berry I, Kucharczyk J, et al. Posterior pituitary gland: appearance on MR images in normal and pathologic states. Radiology 1987;165:481485.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Fujisawa I, Nishimura K, Asato R, et al. Posterior lobe of the pituitary in diabetes insipidus: MR findings. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1987;11:221225.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Sato N, Ishizaka H, Matsumoto M, et al. MR detectability of posterior pituitary high signal and direction of frequency encoding gradient. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1991;15:355358.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Computed tomography and low-field magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism: 11 cases (2001–2003)

View More View Less
  • 1 Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, 3508 TC Utrecht, The Netherlands.
  • | 2 Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, 3508 TC Utrecht, The Netherlands.
  • | 3 Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, 3508 TC Utrecht, The Netherlands.
  • | 4 Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, 3508 TC Utrecht, The Netherlands.
  • | 5 Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, 3508 TC Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Abstract

Objective—To compare the results of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary gland in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) caused by histologically confirmed pituitary adenoma.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—11 dogs with PDH that underwent transsphenoidal hypophysectomy.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs examined between January 2001 and March 2003 were reviewed. Dogs were included in this study if they had clinical signs of hypercortisolism at the time of admission (for which PDH was diagnosed) and underwent transsphenoidal hypophysectomy. Pre- and postcontrast CT and low-field MRI (0.2-Tesla magnet) were performed on the same day as surgery for each dog.

Results—An abnormal pituitary gland was found in 7 dogs by use of MRI and in the same 7 dogs by use of CT. Significant differences were found between postcontrast CT and MR images for height, width, and length of the pituitary gland; brain area; and thickness of the sphenoid bone. However, the pituitary gland height-to-brain area ratio determined from postcontrast CT and MR images was not significantly different. The signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio of pre- and postcontrast MR images were significantly higher than those of the CT images.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Low-field MRI and dynamic CT imaging of the pituitary gland provided comparable information on the presence of pituitary adenomas in dogs with PDH.

Abstract

Objective—To compare the results of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary gland in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) caused by histologically confirmed pituitary adenoma.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—11 dogs with PDH that underwent transsphenoidal hypophysectomy.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs examined between January 2001 and March 2003 were reviewed. Dogs were included in this study if they had clinical signs of hypercortisolism at the time of admission (for which PDH was diagnosed) and underwent transsphenoidal hypophysectomy. Pre- and postcontrast CT and low-field MRI (0.2-Tesla magnet) were performed on the same day as surgery for each dog.

Results—An abnormal pituitary gland was found in 7 dogs by use of MRI and in the same 7 dogs by use of CT. Significant differences were found between postcontrast CT and MR images for height, width, and length of the pituitary gland; brain area; and thickness of the sphenoid bone. However, the pituitary gland height-to-brain area ratio determined from postcontrast CT and MR images was not significantly different. The signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio of pre- and postcontrast MR images were significantly higher than those of the CT images.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Low-field MRI and dynamic CT imaging of the pituitary gland provided comparable information on the presence of pituitary adenomas in dogs with PDH.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Barthez's present address is VEDIM, Route de Luxembourg 76, L-4972 Dippach, Luxembourg, Luxembourg.

Dr. van der Vlugt-Meijer's present address is ACE Pharmaceuticals BV, PO Box 1262, 3980 BB Zeewolde, The Netherlands.

Address correspondence to Dr. Auriemma.