• 1.

    Cook WR. The clinical features of guttural pouch mycosis in the horse. Vet Rec 1968;83:336345.

  • 2.

    Greet TRC. Outcome of treatment in 35 cases of guttural pouch mycosis. Equine Vet J 1987;19:483487.

  • 3.

    Caron JP, Fretz PD, Bailey JV, et al. Balloon-tipped catheter arterial occlusion for prevention of hemorrhages caused by guttural pouch mycosis: 13 cases (1982–1985). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1987;191:345349.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Smith KM, Barber SM. Guttural pouch hemorrhages associated with lesions of the maxillary artery in two horses. Can Vet J 1984;25:239242.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Freeman DE, Ross MW, Donawick WJ, et al. Occlusion of the external carotid and maxillary arteries in the horse to prevent hemorrhage from guttural pouch mycosis. Vet Surg 1989;18:3947.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Edwards GB, Greet T. Disorders of the guttural pouches. Guttural pouch mycosis. In: Equine respiratory medicine and surgery. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 2007;424430.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Freeman DE, Donawick WJ. Occlusion of the internal carotid artery in the horse by means of a balloon-tipped catheter: evaluation of a method designed to prevent epistaxis caused by guttural pouch mycosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1980;176:232235.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Freeman DE, Donawick WJ. Occlusion of the internal carotid artery in the horse by means of a balloon-tipped catheter: clinical use of the method to prevent epistaxis caused by guttural pouch mycosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1980;176:236240.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Leveille R, Hardy J, Robertson JT, et al. Transarterial coil embolisation of the internal and external carotid and maxillary arteries for prevention of hemorrhages from guttural pouch mycosis in horses. Vet Surg 2000;29:389397.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Hardy J, Robertson JT, Wilkie DA. Ischemic optic neuropathy and blindness after arterial occlusion for treatment of guttural pouch mycosis in two horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1990;196:16311634.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Church S, Wyn-Jones G, Park AH, et al. Treatment of guttural pouch mycosis. Equine Vet J 1986;18:362365.

  • 12.

    McIlwraith CW. Surgical treatment of acute epistaxis associated with guttural pouch mycosis. Vet Med Small Anim Clin 1978;73:6769.

  • 13.

    Owen RR, Ap R. Epistaxis prevented by ligation of the internal carotid artery in the guttural pouch. Equine Vet J 1974;6:143149.

  • 14.

    Lane JG. The management of guttural pouch mycosis. Equine Vet J 1989;21:321324.

  • 15.

    Cook WR, Campbell RSF, Dawson C. The pathology and aetiology of guttural pouch mycosis in the horse. Vet Rec 1968;83:422428.

  • 16.

    Guillot J, Collobert C, Gueho E, et al. Emericella nidulans as an agent of guttural pouch mycosis in a horse. J Med Vet Mycol 1997;35:433435.

  • 17.

    Kaufman SI, Martin LG, Zuckerman AM, et al. Peripheral transcatheter embolization with platinum microcoils. Radiology 1992;184:369372.

  • 18.

    Partington BP, Partington CR, Biller DS, et al. Transvenous coil embolization for treatment of patent ductus venosus in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1993;202:281284.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Snaps FR, McEntee K, Saunders J, et al. Treatment of patent ductus arteriosus by placement of intravascular coils in a pup. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1995;207:724725.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Hardy J, Leveille R. Disease of the guttural pouch. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2003;19:123158.

  • 21.

    Ha CD, Calcagno D. Amplatzer Vascular Plug to occlude the internal iliac arteries in patients undergoing aortoiliac aneurysm repair. J Vasc Surg 2005;42:10581062.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Rossi M, Rebonato A, Greco L, et al. A new device for vascular embolization: report on case of two pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas embolization using the amplazer vascular plug. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2006;29:902906.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Fischer G, Apostolopoulou S, Rammos S, et al. Transcatheter closure of coronary arterial fistulas using the new Amplatzer vascular plug. Cardiol Young 2007;17:283287.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Speirs VC, Harrison IW, van Veenendaal JC, et al. Is specific antifungal therapy necessary for the treatment of guttural pouch mycosis in horses? Equine Vet J 1995;27:151152.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Tabori NE, Love BA. Transcatheter occlusion of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug II. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2008;71:940943.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Hogan DF, Green HW, Sanders RA. Transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus in a dog with a peripheral vascular occlusion device. J Vet Cardiol 2006;8:139142.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Treatment of acute epistaxis secondary to guttural pouch mycosis with transarterial nitinol vascular occlusion plugs in three equids

Kira C. Delfs DVM1, Jan F. Hawkins DVM, DACVS2, and Daniel F. Hogan DVM, DACVIM3
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 3 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.

Abstract

Case Description—2 horses and 1 pony were evaluated for right-sided (1 horse and the pony) and left-sided (1 horse) acute epistaxis of 1 day's to 1 month's duration.

Clinical Findings—Endoscopic examination of the 3 equids revealed that the hemorrhage originated from the right maxillary artery in 2 equids and from the left internal carotid artery in the third. Mycosis of the auditory tube diverticulum (guttural pouch) was detected in all 3 equids.

Treatment and Outcome—All 3 equids underwent surgery, and transarterial nitinol intravascular plugs were placed to occlude affected blood vessels. All equids survived for a long period (ie, a minimum of 1 to 2 years) and returned to their previous use. All had complete regression of clinical signs of guttural pouch mycosis without additional medical treatment.

Clinical Relevance—The use of transarterial nitinol intravascular plugs appeared to be an effective alternative to other techniques for the treatment of epistaxis secondary to guttural pouch mycosis, including transarterial occlusion devices such as embolization coils.

Abstract

Case Description—2 horses and 1 pony were evaluated for right-sided (1 horse and the pony) and left-sided (1 horse) acute epistaxis of 1 day's to 1 month's duration.

Clinical Findings—Endoscopic examination of the 3 equids revealed that the hemorrhage originated from the right maxillary artery in 2 equids and from the left internal carotid artery in the third. Mycosis of the auditory tube diverticulum (guttural pouch) was detected in all 3 equids.

Treatment and Outcome—All 3 equids underwent surgery, and transarterial nitinol intravascular plugs were placed to occlude affected blood vessels. All equids survived for a long period (ie, a minimum of 1 to 2 years) and returned to their previous use. All had complete regression of clinical signs of guttural pouch mycosis without additional medical treatment.

Clinical Relevance—The use of transarterial nitinol intravascular plugs appeared to be an effective alternative to other techniques for the treatment of epistaxis secondary to guttural pouch mycosis, including transarterial occlusion devices such as embolization coils.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Delfs.