• 1.

    Spauling KA. Ultrasound corner gallbladder wall thickness. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 1993;34:270272.

  • 2.

    Zeman RK, Taylor KJ, Rosenfield AT, et al. Acute experimental biliary obstruction in the dog: sonographic findings and clinical implications. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1981;136:965967.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Fossum TW, Willard MD. Diseases of the gallbladder and extrahepatic biliary system. In: Ettinger SJ, Feldman EC, eds. Textbook of veterinary internal medicine. 4th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1995;1397.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Khetan N, Bose NC, Arya SV, et al. Carcinoid tumor of the gallbladder: report of a case. Surg Today 1995;25:10471049.

  • 5.

    Hsu W, Deziel D, Gould VE, et al. Neuroendocrine differentiation and prognosis of extrahepatic biliary tract carcinomas. Surgery 1991;110:604610.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Cullen JM, Popp JA. Tumors of the liver and gall bladder: hepatic carcinoids. In: Meuten DJ, ed. Tumors in domestic animals. 4th ed. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publishing Co, 2002;502503.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Brömel C, Smeak DD, Léveillé R. Porcelain gallbladder associated with primary biliary adenocarcinoma in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:11371139.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Neer TM. A review of disorders of the gallbladder and extrahepatic biliary tract in the dog and cat. J Vet Intern Med 1992;6:186192.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Willard MD, Dunstan RW, Faulker J. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1988;192:926928.

  • 10.

    Morrell CN, Volk MV, Mankowski JL. A carcinoid tumor in the gallbladder of a dog. Vet Pathol 2002;39:756758.

  • 11.

    Patnaik AK, Lieberman PH, Erlandson RA, et al. Hepatobiliary neuroendocrine carcinoma in cats: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of 17 cases. Vet Pathol 2005;42:331337.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Sako T, Uchida E, Okamoto M, et al. Immunohistochemical evaluation of a malignant intestinal carcinoma in a dog. Vet Pathol 2003;40:212215.

  • 13.

    Patnaik AK, Lieberman PH, Johnson GF. Canine hepatic carcinoids. Vet Pathol 1981;18:445453.

  • 14.

    Deehan DJ, Heys SD, Kernohan N, et al. Carcinoid tumour of the gall bladder: two case reports and a review of published works. Gut 1993;34:12741276.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Tannapfel A, Wittekind C. Gallbladder and bile duct carcinoma. Biology and pathology [in German]. Internist (Berl) 2004;45:3341.

  • 16.

    Tannapfel A, Wittekind C. Anatomy and pathology of intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct tumors [in German]. Pathologe 2001;22:114123.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Hayes HM, Morin MM, Rubenstein DA. Canine biliary carcinoma: epidemiological comparisons with man. J Comp Pathol 1983;93:99107.

Advertisement

Use of color flow Doppler ultrasonography to diagnose a bleeding neuroendocrine tumor in the gallbladder of a dog

Jitender BhandalCanada West Veterinary Specialists and Critical Care Hospital, 1988 Kootenay St, Vancouver, BC V5M 4Y3, Canada.

Search for other papers by Jitender Bhandal in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 BVSc
,
Laurie L. HeadCanada West Veterinary Specialists and Critical Care Hospital, 1988 Kootenay St, Vancouver, BC V5M 4Y3, Canada.

Search for other papers by Laurie L. Head in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, DACVR
,
David A. FrancisCanada West Veterinary Specialists and Critical Care Hospital, 1988 Kootenay St, Vancouver, BC V5M 4Y3, Canada.

Search for other papers by David A. Francis in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MS, DACVS
,
Robert A. FosterCanada West Veterinary Specialists and Critical Care Hospital, 1988 Kootenay St, Vancouver, BC V5M 4Y3, Canada.

Search for other papers by Robert A. Foster in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 BVSc, PhD, DACVP
, and
Allan BerringtonCanada West Veterinary Specialists and Critical Care Hospital, 1988 Kootenay St, Vancouver, BC V5M 4Y3, Canada.

Search for other papers by Allan Berrington in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, DACVP

Abstract

Case Description—A 13-year-old neutered female Keeshond-cross was evaluated because of a history of melena, anemia, hematemesis, vomiting, and high serum liver enzyme activities over a 1.5-year period.

Clinical Findings—Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a hyperechoic mass in the gallbladder. In the gallbladder mass itself, a distinct linear blood flow pattern was detected by use of color flow Doppler ultrasonography.

Treatment and Outcome—A cholecystectomy was performed, and clinical signs resolved. Samples of the mass were examined histologically and immunohistochemically, and findings supported a diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumor of the gallbladder.

Clinical Relevance—Tumors of the biliary tree are a potential source of blood loss into the gastrointestinal tract. Color flow Doppler ultrasonography in conjunction with conventional grayscale ultrasonography may be useful in evaluation of the gallbladder in dogs. When echogenic material is detected in the gallbladder, it is important to evaluate the region for blood flow.

Abstract

Case Description—A 13-year-old neutered female Keeshond-cross was evaluated because of a history of melena, anemia, hematemesis, vomiting, and high serum liver enzyme activities over a 1.5-year period.

Clinical Findings—Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a hyperechoic mass in the gallbladder. In the gallbladder mass itself, a distinct linear blood flow pattern was detected by use of color flow Doppler ultrasonography.

Treatment and Outcome—A cholecystectomy was performed, and clinical signs resolved. Samples of the mass were examined histologically and immunohistochemically, and findings supported a diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumor of the gallbladder.

Clinical Relevance—Tumors of the biliary tree are a potential source of blood loss into the gastrointestinal tract. Color flow Doppler ultrasonography in conjunction with conventional grayscale ultrasonography may be useful in evaluation of the gallbladder in dogs. When echogenic material is detected in the gallbladder, it is important to evaluate the region for blood flow.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Bhandal's present address is Department of Surgery, Michigan Veterinary Specialists, 29080 Inkster Rd, Southfield, MI 48034.

Address correspondence to Dr. Bhandal (jpsbhandal@gmail.com).