• 1.

    Grahn BH, Storey ES. Lacrimostimulants and lacrimomimetics. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2004;34:739753.

  • 2.

    Wang J, Palakuru JR, Aquavella JV. Correlations among upper and lower tear menisci, noninvasive tear break-up time, and the Schirmer test. Am J Ophthalmol 2008;145:795800.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Giuliano EA, Moore CP. Diseases and surgery of the lacrimal secretory system. In: Gelatt KN, ed. Veterinary ophthalmology. 4th ed. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publishing, 2007;633661.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Martin GR. Eye. In: King AS, McLeland J, eds. Form and function in birds. London: Academic Press, 1985;311373.

  • 5.

    Burns RB. The structure of the lachrymal glands of the domestic fowl and of the duck. Res Vet Sci 1976;21:292299.

  • 6.

    Greenwood AG, Barnett KC. The investigation of visual defects in raptors. In: Cooper JE, ed. Recent advances in the study of raptor diseases. Keighley, England: Chiron Publications Ltd, 1981;131135.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Duke-Elder S. The eyes of birds. In: Duke-Elder S, ed. System of ophthalmology. St Louis: CV Mosby Co, 1958;396427.

  • 8.

    Murphy CJ. Raptor ophthalmology. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 1987;9:241260.

  • 9.

    Kern TJ, Paul-Murphy J, Murphy CJ, et al.Disorders of the third eyelid in birds: 17 cases. J Avian Med Surg 1996;10:1218.

  • 10.

    Burns RB, Maxwell MH. The structure of the Harderian and lacrimal gland ducts of the turkey, fowl and duck. A light microscope study. J Anat 1979;128:285292.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Maxwell MH, Burns RB. The ultrastructure of the epithelium of the ducts of the Harderian and lacrimal glands of the turkey, fowl and duck. J Anat 1979;128:445459.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Wight PA, Mackenzie GM. Mucosubstances in the Harderian gland of the domestic duck. Res Vet Sci 1974;17:114121.

  • 13.

    Walls GL. The vertebrate eye and its adaptive radiation. Bloomfield Hills, Mich: Cranbrook Institute of Science, 1942;425.

  • 14.

    Battat L, Macri A, Dursun D, et al.Effects of laser in situ keratomileusis on tear production, clearance, and the ocular surface. Ophthalmology 2001;108:12301235.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Dogru M, Okada N, Asano-Kato N, et al.Alterations of the ocular surface epithelial mucins 1, 2, 4 and the tear functions in patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Clin Exp Allergy 2006;36:15561565.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Cullen CL, Njaa BL, Grahn BH. Ulcerative keratitis associated with qualitative tear film abnormalities in cats. Vet Ophthalmol 1999;2:197204.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Hirsh SG, Kaswan RL. A comparative study of Schirmer tear test strips in dogs. Vet Comp Ophthalmol 1995;5:215217.

  • 18.

    Wyman M, Gilger B, Mueller P, et al.Clinical evaluation of a new Schirmer tear test in the dog. Vet Comp Ophthalmol 1995;5:211214.

  • 19.

    Hawkins EC, Murphy CJ. Inconsistencies in the absorptive capacities of Schirmer tear test strips. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1986;188:511513.

  • 20.

    Marts BS, Bryan GM, Prieur DJ. Schirmer tear test measurement and lysozyme concentration of equine tears. J Equine Med Surg 1977;1:427430.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Herring IP, Pickett JP, Champagne ES, et al.Evaluation of aqueous tear production in dogs following general anesthesia. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2000;36:427430.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Crispin SM. Tear-deficient and evaporative dry eye syndromes of the horse. Vet Ophthalmol 2000;3:8792.

  • 23.

    Saito A, Kotani T. Estimation of lacrimal level and testing methods on normal beagles. Vet Ophthalmol 2001;4:711.

  • 24.

    Gelatt KN, Peiffer RL Jr, Erickson JL, et al.Evaluation of tear formation in the dog, using a modification of the Schirmer tear test. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1975;166:368370.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Willis AM, Wilkie DA. Avian ophthalmology part 1: anatomy, examination, and diagnostic techniques. J Avian Med Surg 1999;13:160166.

  • 26.

    Brown MH, Brightman AH, Butine MD, et al.The phenol red thread tear test in healthy cats. Vet Comp Ophthalmol 1997;7:249252.

  • 27.

    Brown MH, Galland JC, Davidson HJ, et al.The phenol red thread tear test in dogs. Vet Comp Ophthalmol 1996;6:274277.

  • 28.

    Trost K, Skalicky M, Nell B. Schirmer tear test, phenol red thread tear test, eye blink frequency and corneal sensitivity in the guinea pig. Vet Ophthalmol 2007;10:143146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Holt E, Rosenthal K, Shofer FS. The phenol red thread tear test in large Psittaciformes. Vet Ophthalmol 2006;9:109113.

  • 30.

    Murphy CJ, Pollock RVS. The eye. In: Evans HE, ed. Miller's anatomy of the dog. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1993;10091057.

  • 31.

    Walcott B, Sibony PA, Keyser KT. Neuropeptides and the innervation of the avian lacrimal gland. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1989;30:16661674.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Jordan A, Baum J. Basic tear flow. Does it exist? Ophthalmology 1980;87:920930.

  • 33.

    Clinch TE, Benedetto DA, Felberg NT, et al.Schirmer's test. A closer look. Arch Ophthalmol 1983;101:13831386.

  • 34.

    Yokoi N, Kinoshita S, Bron AJ, et al.Tear meniscus changes during cotton thread and Schirmer testing. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2000;41:37483753.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Veith LA, Cure TH, Gelatt KN. The Schirmer tear test in cats. Mod Vet Pract 1970;51:4849.

  • 36.

    Korbel R, Leitenstorfer P. Clinical estimation of lacrimal function in various bird species using a modified Schirmer tear test. Isr J Vet Med 1996;51:171175.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Williams D. Ophthalmology. In: Ritchie BW, Harrison GJ, Harrison LR, eds. Avian medicine: principles and application. Lake Worth, Fla: Wingers Publishing, 1994;673694.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Sakamoto R, Bennett ES, Henry VA, et al.The phenol red thread tear test: a cross-cultural study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1993;34:35103514.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Herring IP, Bobofchak MA, Landry MP, et al.Duration of effect and effect of multiple doses of topical ophthalmic 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride in clinically normal dogs. Am J Vet Res 2005;66:7780.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Forstom C. Ophthaine (proparacaine hydrochloride): a local anesthetic for ophthalmic surgery (lett). Vet Rec 1964;76:385.

  • 41.

    Berger SL, King VL. The fluctuation of tear production in the dog. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1998;34:7983.

  • 42.

    Hakanson NW, Arnesson K. Temporal variation in tear production in normal beagle dogs as determined by Schirmer tear test. Vet Comp Ophthalmol 1997;7:196203.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Millodot M, Larson W. New measurements of corneal sensitivity: a preliminary report. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom 1969;46:261265.

  • 44.

    Barrett PM, Scagliotti RH, Merideth RE, et al.Absolute corneal sensitivity and corneal trigeminal nerve anatomy in normal dogs. Prog Vet Comp Ophthalmol 1991;1:245254.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Blocker T, van der WA. A comparison of corneal sensitivity between brachycephalic and domestic short-haired cats. Vet Ophthalmol 2001;4:127130.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46.

    Millodot M, Lim CH, Ruskell GL. A comparison of the corneal sensitivity and nerve density in albino and pigmented rabbits. Ophthalmic Res 1978;10:307311.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Use of phenol red thread tests to evaluate tear production in clinically normal Amazon parrots and comparison with Schirmer tear test findings

Eric S. Storey DVM, MVSc, DACVO1, Deborah A. Carboni MS, DVM2, Michael T. Kearney MS, MApStat3, and Thomas N. Tully Jr DVM, MS, DABVP4
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803.
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803.
  • | 3 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803.
  • | 4 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803.

Abstract

Objective—To determine phenol red thread test (PRTT) values in eyes of clinically normal Hispaniolan Amazon parrots before and after topical application of an ophthalmic anesthetic agent and compare findings with Schirmer tear test (STT) values.

Design—Evaluation study.

Animals—24 Amazona ventralis parrots from a research colony.

Procedures—On 4 occasions (1-week intervals), all birds underwent a thorough ophthalmic examination of both eyes, which included (in sequence) performance of a PRTT and an STT; topical ocular application of proparacaine hydrochloride; and performance of another PRTT and another STT. Correlations between PRTT and STT values recorded with and without topical anesthesia were assessed.

Results—Without topical anesthesia, mean ± SD PRTT value was 12.5 ± 5.0 mm/15 s (range, 1 to 25 mm/15 s). With topical anesthesia, the PRTT value was 12.6 ± 5.4 mm/15 s (range, 2 to 24 mm/15 s). Without topical anesthesia, mean STT value was 7.9 ± 2.6 mm/min (range, 0 to 13 mm/min). With topical anesthesia, the STT value was 5.1 ± 3.3 mm/min (range, 0 to 18 mm/min). The correlation of PRTT and STT values recorded with or without topical anesthesia was weak (r = 0.51 and r = 0.32, respectively).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that the PRTT and STT were both viable methods for measurement of tear production in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Topical application of an ophthalmic anesthetic agent did not have a significant effect on the PRTT values but significantly decreased the STT values.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Carboni's present address is the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium, 9990 Riverside Dr, Powell, OH 43065.

Address correspondence to Dr. Storey (storey@vetmed.lsu.edu).