• 1.

    Nolen-Walston R, Bedenice D, Rodriguez C, et al. Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) in 9 South American camelids. J Vet Intern Med 2007;21:846852.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Tengelsen LA, Bowen RA, Royals MA, et al. Response to and efficacy of vaccination against eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in emus. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:14691473.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Waldridge BM, Wenzel JG, Ellis AC, et al. Serologic responses to eastern and western equine encephalomyelitis vaccination in previously vaccinated horses. Vet Ther 2003;4:242248.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Weingartl HM, Drebot MA, Hubalek Z, et al. Comparison of assays for the detection of West Nile virus antibodies in chicken serum. Can J Vet Res 2003;67:128132.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Kutzler MA, Baker RJ, Mattson DE. Humoral response to West Nile virus vaccination in alpacas and llamas. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:414416.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Holmes MA, Townsend HG, Kohler AK, et al. Immune responses to commercial equine vaccines against equine herpesvirus-1, equine influenza virus, eastern equine encephalomyelitis, and tetanus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2006;111:6780.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Ferrari A, Rodriguez MM, Power P, et al. Immunobiological role of llama heavy-chain antibodies against a bacterial beta-lactamase. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2007;117:173182.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Muyldermans S, Lauwereys M. Unique single-domain antigen binding fragments derived from naturally occurring camel heavy-chain antibodies. J Mol Recognit 1999;12:131140.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Nguyen VK, Desmyter A, Muyldermans S. Functional heavy-chain antibodies in Camelidae. Adv Immunol 2001;79:261296.

  • 10.

    Roitt IM. Essential immunology. 8th ed. Oxford, England: Blackwell Scientific, 1994.

  • 11.

    El-Madhun AS, Cox RJ, Haaheim LR. The effect of age and natural priming on the IgG and IgA subclass responses after parenteral influenza vaccination. J Infect Dis 1999;180:13561360.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Remarque EJ, van Bee WC, Ligthart GJ, et al. Improvement of the immunoglobulin subclass response to influenza vaccine in elderly nursing-home residents by the use of high-dose vaccines. Vaccine 1993;116:649654.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Wernery U. Camelid immunoglobulins and their importance for the new-born—a review. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 2001;48:561568.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Elvinger F, Baldwin CA, Liggett AD, et al. Protection of pigs by vaccination of pregnant sows against eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus. Vet Microbiol 1996;51:229239.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    de Bruijn IA, Remarque EJ, Jol-van der Zijde CM, et al. Quality and quantity of the humoral immune response in healthy elderly and young subjects after annually repeated influenza vaccination. J Infect Dis 1999;179:3136.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Glathe H, Bigl S, Grosche A. Comparison of humoral immune responses to trivalent influenza split vaccine in young, middleaged and elderly people. Vaccine 1993;11:702705.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Barber TL, Walton TE, Lewis KJ. Efficacy of trivalent inactivated encephalomyelitis virus vaccine in horses. Am J Vet Res 1978;39:621625.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Olsen GH, Turell MJ, Pagac BB. Efficacy of eastern equine encephalitis immunization in whooping cranes. J Wildl Dis 1997;33:312315.

  • 19.

    Tate CM, Howerth EW, Stallknecht DE, et al. Eastern equine encephalitis in a free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). J Wildl Dis 2005;41:241245.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Hoff GL, Issel CJ, Trainer DO, et al. Arbovirus serology in North Dakota mule and white-tailed deer. J Wildl Dis 1973;9:291295.

  • 21.

    Trainer DO, Hanson RP. Serologic evidence of arbovirus infections in wild ruminants. Am J Epidemiol 1969;90:354358.

  • 22.

    Elvinger F, Baldwin CA, Liggett AD, et al. Prevalence of exposure to eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in domestic and feral swine in Georgia. J Vet Diagn Invest 1996;8:481484.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    CDC. Eastern equine encephalitis—New Hampshire and Massachusetts, August-September 2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2006;55:697700.

Advertisement

Humoral response to an equine encephalitis vaccine in healthy alpacas

Daniela Bedenice Dr med vet, DACVIM, DACVECC1, Amy Bright DVM2, Douglas D. Pedersen BS3, and Jack Dibb PhD4
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Clinical Sciences, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536.
  • | 2 Cornerstone Veterinary Hospital, 299 Calef Hwy, Epping, NH 03042.
  • | 3 National Veterinary Services Laboratories, 1800 Dayton Ave, Ames, IA 50010.
  • | 4 Climate Change Research Center, Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824.

Abstract

Objective—To determine humoral responses to an equine encephalitis vaccine in healthy alpacas.

Design—Clinical trial.

Animals—39 healthy alpacas on 1 farm and 86 healthy alpacas on a second farm.

Procedures—All alpacas were given 3 doses IM of a bivalent, killed-virus equine encephalitis vaccine, with 4 weeks between doses. Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus neutralizing antibody responses were determined with a plaque reduction neutralization assay every 14 days in alpacas on the first farm and 70 days after the first dose of vaccine on the second farm.

Results—For alpacas on the first farm, geometric mean virus neutralizing antibody titer peaked 2 weeks after the third vaccine dose was given (ie, day 70). At this time, 29 of 38 (76%) animals were seropositive for antibodies against EEE virus, and percentage of animals ≤ 2 years old that were seropositive (16/17) was significantly higher than percentage of animals > 6 years old that were seropositive (1/5). For alpacas on the second farm, 76 (88%) were seropositive on day 70, and percentage of animals ≤ 2 years old that were seropositive (24/24) was significantly higher than percentage of animals > 6 years old that were seropositive (27/33). For both farms, geometric mean titer on day 70 was significantly higher in animals < 2 years old than in animals > 6 years old.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that inoculation of alpacas with 3 doses of a bivalent, killed-virus equine encephalitis vaccine induced a humoral antibody response against EEE virus.

Abstract

Objective—To determine humoral responses to an equine encephalitis vaccine in healthy alpacas.

Design—Clinical trial.

Animals—39 healthy alpacas on 1 farm and 86 healthy alpacas on a second farm.

Procedures—All alpacas were given 3 doses IM of a bivalent, killed-virus equine encephalitis vaccine, with 4 weeks between doses. Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus neutralizing antibody responses were determined with a plaque reduction neutralization assay every 14 days in alpacas on the first farm and 70 days after the first dose of vaccine on the second farm.

Results—For alpacas on the first farm, geometric mean virus neutralizing antibody titer peaked 2 weeks after the third vaccine dose was given (ie, day 70). At this time, 29 of 38 (76%) animals were seropositive for antibodies against EEE virus, and percentage of animals ≤ 2 years old that were seropositive (16/17) was significantly higher than percentage of animals > 6 years old that were seropositive (1/5). For alpacas on the second farm, 76 (88%) were seropositive on day 70, and percentage of animals ≤ 2 years old that were seropositive (24/24) was significantly higher than percentage of animals > 6 years old that were seropositive (27/33). For both farms, geometric mean titer on day 70 was significantly higher in animals < 2 years old than in animals > 6 years old.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that inoculation of alpacas with 3 doses of a bivalent, killed-virus equine encephalitis vaccine induced a humoral antibody response against EEE virus.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Bright's present address is Ande's Veterinary Service, 280 Raymond Rd, Candia, NH 03034.

Supported by the Alpaca Research Foundation (ARF) and New England Alpaca Owners and Breeder Association (NEAOBA).

Vaccines were donated by Intervet Incorporated, Millsboro, Del.

Presented in part at the International Camelid Conference, Corvallis, Ore, March 2007.

The authors thank Dr. Loise Maranda for assistance with statistical analyses.

Address correspondence to Dr. Bedenice.