• 1.

    Griffiths IR. A syndrome produced by dorso-lateral “explosions” of the cervical intervertebral discs. Vet Rec 1970;87:737741.

  • 2.

    Bagley RS. Spinal cord enigmas: fibrocartilagenous emboli, arachnoid cyst, and others, in Proceedings. 21st Annu Am Coll Vet Intern Med Forum 2003;1011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Bagley RS. Fibrocartilagenous emboli: does it really exist?, in Proceedings. Am Coll Vet Surg Forum 2005;363364.

  • 4.

    Bagley RS. Clinical features of diseases—spinal cord. In: Bagley RS, ed. Fundamentals of veterinary clinical neurology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, 2005;174175.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Hansen HJ. A pathologic-anatomical study on disc degeneration in dog. Acta Orthop Scand 1952;11:4119.

  • 6.

    Lu D, Lamb CR, Wesselingh K, et al. Acute intervertebral disc extrusion in a cat: clinical and MRI findings. J Feline Med Surg 2002;4:6568.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Chang Y, Dennis R, Platt S, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging features of traumatic intervertebral disc extrusion in dogs. Vet Rec 2007;160:795799.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Abramson CJ, Garosi L, Platt SR, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging appearance of suspected ischemic myelopathy in dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2005;46:225229.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    De Risio L, Adams V, Dennis R, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging findings and clinical associations in 52 dogs with suspected ischemic myelopathy. J Vet Intern Med 2007;21:12901298.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Lammertse D, Dungan D, Dreisbarch J, et al. Neuroimaging in traumatic spinal cord injury: an evidence-based review for clinical practice and research. J Spinal Cord Med 2007;30:205214.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Croul SE, Flanders AE. Neuropathology of human spinal cord injury. In: Seil FJ, ed. Advances in neurology: neuronal regeneration, reorganization and repair. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1997;317323.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Weirich SD, Cotler HB, Narayana PA, et al. Histopathologic correlation of magnetic resonance imaging signal patterns in a spinal cord injury model. Spine 1990;15:630638.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Schouman-Claeys E, Frija G, Cuenod CA, et al. MR imaging of acute spinal cord injury: results of an experimental study in dogs. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1990;11:959965.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Fujii H, Yone K, Sakou T. Magnetic resonance imaging study of experimental acute spinal cord injury. Spine 1993;18:20302034.

  • 15.

    Bradley WG. MRI appearance of hemorrhage in the brain. Radiology 1993;189:1526.

  • 16.

    Weingarten K, Zimmerman RD, Deo-Narine V, et al. MR imaging of acute intracranial hemorrhage: findings on sequential spin-echo and gradient echo images in a dog model. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1991;12:457467.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Shimada K, Tokioka T. Sequential MR studies of cervical cord injury: correlation with neurological damage and clinical outcome. Spinal Cord 1999;376:410415.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Flanders AE, Spettell CM, Tartaglino LM, et al. Forecasting motor recovery following cervical spinal cord injury: value of MR imaging. Radiology 1996;201:649655.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Flanders AE, Spettell AM, Friedman DP, et al. The relationship between the functional abilities of patients with cervical spinal cord injury and the severity of damage revealed by MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1999;20:926934.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Selden NR, Quint DJ, Patel N, et al. Emergency magnetic resonance imaging of cervical spinal cord injuries: clinical correlation and prognosis. Neurosurgery 1999;44:785793.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Miyanji F, Furlan JC, Aarabi B, et al. Acute cervical traumatic spinal cord injury: MR imaging findings correlated with neurologic outcome-prospective study with 100 consecutive patients. Radiology 2007;243:820827.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Bondurant FJ, Cotler HB, Kulkarni MV, et al. Acute spinal cord injury: a study using physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging. Spine 1990;15:161168.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Marciello M, Flanders AE, Herbison GJ, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging related to neurologic outcome in cervical spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1993;74:940946.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Ito D, Matsunaga S, Jeffery ND. Prognostic value of magnetic resonance imaging in dogs with paraplegia caused by thoracolumbar intervertebral disk extrusion: 77 case (2000–2003). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:14541460.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    De Risio L, Adams V, Dennis R, et al. Association of clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings with outcome in dogs suspected to have ischemic myelopathy: 50 cases (2000–2006). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008;233:129135.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Akaike H. New look at the statistical model identification. IEEE Trans Automat Contr 1974;19:716723.

  • 27.

    Yarrow TG, Jeffery ND. Dura mater laceration associated with acute paraplegia in three dogs. Vet Rec 2000;29:138139.

  • 28.

    Greenland S, Schwartzbaum JA, Finkle WD. Problems due to small samples and sparse data in conditional logistic regression analysis. Am J Epidemiol 2000;151:531539.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Leypold BG, Flanders AE, Burns AS. The early evolution of spinal cord lesions on MR imaging following traumatic spinal cord injury. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2008;22:15.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Matthiesen DT. Thoracolumbar spinal fractures/luxations: surgical management. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 1983;5:867878.

  • 31.

    Shores A. Fractures and luxations of the vertebral column. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1992;22:171180.

  • 32.

    Smith PM, Jeffery ND. Spinal shock—comparative aspects and clinical relevance. J Vet Intern Med 2005;19:788793.

  • 33.

    Nacimiento W, Noth J. What, if anything, is spinal shock? Arch Neurol 1999;56:10331035.

  • 34.

    Ditunno JF, Little JW, Tessler A, et al. Spinal shock revisited: a four-phase model. Spinal Cord 2004;42:383395.

  • 35.

    Leis AA, Kronenberg MF, Stetkarova I, et al. Spinal motor neuron excitability after acute spinal cord injury in humans. Neurology 1996;47:231237.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Little JW, Ditunno JF, Stiens SA, et al. Incomplete spinal cord injury: neuronal mechanism of motor recovery and hyperreflexia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1999;80:589599.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Olby N, Levine J, Harris T, et al. Long-term functional outcome of dogs with severe injuries of the thoracolumbar spinal cord: 87 cases (1996–2001). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:762769.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Sun WM, Read NW, Donnelly TC. Anorectal function in incontinent patients with cerebrospinal disease. Gastroenterology 1990;99:13721379.

  • 39.

    Tjandra JJ, Ooi BS, Han WR. Anorectal physiologic testing for bowel dysfunction in patients with spinal cord lesions. Dis Colon Rectum 2000;43:927931.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Lynch AC, Anthony A, Dobbs BR, et al. Anorectal physiology following spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2000;38:573580.

  • 41.

    Krogh K, Mosdal C, Gregersen H, et al. Rectal wall properties in patients with acute and chronic spinal cord lesions. Dis Colon Rectum 2002;45:641649.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Bharucha AE. Outcome measures for fecal incontinence: anorectal structure and function. Gastroenterology 2004;126:9098.

Advertisement

Association of clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings with outcome in dogs with presumptive acute noncompressive nucleus pulposus extrusion: 42 cases (2000–2007)

Luisa De Risio DVM, PhD1, Vicki Adams MA, DVM, PhD2, Ruth Dennis MA, VetMB3, and Fraser J. McConnell BVM&S4
View More View Less
  • 1 Centre for Small Animal Studies, Animal Health Trust, Newmarket, Suffolk, CB8 7UU, England.
  • | 2 Centre for Small Animal Studies, Animal Health Trust, Newmarket, Suffolk, CB8 7UU, England.
  • | 3 Centre for Small Animal Studies, Animal Health Trust, Newmarket, Suffolk, CB8 7UU, England.
  • | 4 Diagnostic Imaging Service, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, CH64 7TE, England.

Abstract

Objective—To assess associations of severity of neurologic signs (neurologic score), involvement of an intumescence, and findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with interval to recovery and outcome in dogs with presumptive acute noncompressive nucleus pulposus extrusions.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—42 dogs with presumptive acute noncompressive nucleus pulposus extrusions.

Procedures—Medical records and magnetic resonance (MR) images of dogs evaluated from 2000 through 2007 were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were acute onset of nonprogressive myelopathy following trauma or strenuous exercise, MRI of the spine performed within 7 days after onset, MRI findings consistent with acute noncompressive nucleus pulposus extrusions, and complete medical records and follow-up.

Results—Clinical neuroanatomic localization of lesions was to the C1-C5 (n = 6), C6-T2 (6), T3-L3 (28), and L4-S3 (2) spinal cord segments. Median neurologic score was 3.5. Median duration of follow-up was 804 days (range, 3 to 2,134 days) after onset of neurologic signs. Outcome was successful in 28 (67%) dogs and unsuccessful in 14 (33%) dogs. Severity of neurologic signs, extent of the intramedullary hyperintensity on sagittal and transverse T2-weighted MR images, and detection of intramedullary hypointensity on GRE images were all associated with outcome on univariate analysis. Results of multivariate analysis suggested that maximal cross-sectional area of the intramedullary hyperintensity on transverse T2-weighted MR images was the best predictor of outcome.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance—Clinical and MRI findings can help predict outcome in dogs with acute noncompressive nucleus pulposus extrusions.

Abstract

Objective—To assess associations of severity of neurologic signs (neurologic score), involvement of an intumescence, and findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with interval to recovery and outcome in dogs with presumptive acute noncompressive nucleus pulposus extrusions.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—42 dogs with presumptive acute noncompressive nucleus pulposus extrusions.

Procedures—Medical records and magnetic resonance (MR) images of dogs evaluated from 2000 through 2007 were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were acute onset of nonprogressive myelopathy following trauma or strenuous exercise, MRI of the spine performed within 7 days after onset, MRI findings consistent with acute noncompressive nucleus pulposus extrusions, and complete medical records and follow-up.

Results—Clinical neuroanatomic localization of lesions was to the C1-C5 (n = 6), C6-T2 (6), T3-L3 (28), and L4-S3 (2) spinal cord segments. Median neurologic score was 3.5. Median duration of follow-up was 804 days (range, 3 to 2,134 days) after onset of neurologic signs. Outcome was successful in 28 (67%) dogs and unsuccessful in 14 (33%) dogs. Severity of neurologic signs, extent of the intramedullary hyperintensity on sagittal and transverse T2-weighted MR images, and detection of intramedullary hypointensity on GRE images were all associated with outcome on univariate analysis. Results of multivariate analysis suggested that maximal cross-sectional area of the intramedullary hyperintensity on transverse T2-weighted MR images was the best predictor of outcome.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance—Clinical and MRI findings can help predict outcome in dogs with acute noncompressive nucleus pulposus extrusions.

Contributor Notes

Dr. De Risio's present address is Neurology/Neurosurgery Unit, Centre for Small Animal Studies, Animal Health Trust, Lanwades Park, Kentford, Newmarket, Suffolk, CB8 7UU, England.

Presented in part at the 20th Annual Symposium of the European Society of Veterinary Neurology, Bern, Switzerland, September 2007.

Address correspondence to Dr. De Risio.