• 1.

    Balluz LS, Kieszak MA, Philen RM, et al. Vitamin and mineral supplement use in the United States: results from the third national health and nutrition examination survey. Arch Fam Med 2000;9:258262.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Balluz LS, Okoro CA, Bowman BA, et al. Vitamin or supplement use among adults, behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 13 states, 2001. Public Health Rep 2005;120:117123.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Archer SL, Stamler J, Moag-Stahlberg A, et al. Association of dietary supplement use with specific micronutrient intakes among middle-aged American men and women: the INTERMAP study. J Am Diet Assoc 2005;105:11061114.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Freeman LM, Abood SK, Fascetti AJ, et al. Disease prevalence among dogs and cats in the United States and Australia and proportions of dogs and cats that receive therapeutic diets or dietary supplements. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006;229:531534.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Freeman LM, Rush JE, Cahalane AK, et al. Evaluation of dietary patterns in dogs with cardiac disease. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:13011305.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Lana SE, Kogan LR, Crump KA, et al. The use of complementary and alternative therapies in dogs and cats with cancer. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2006;42:361365.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Russell AS, Aghazadeh-Habashi A, Jamali F. Active ingredient consistency of commercially available glucosamine sulfate products. J Rheumatol 2002;29:24072409.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Oke S, Aghazadeh-Habash A, Weese JS, et al. Evaluation of glucosamine levels in commercial equine oral supplements. Equine Vet J 2006;38:9395.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Weese JS. Microbiologic evaluation of commercial probiotics. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:794797.

  • 10.

    Weese JS. Evaluation of deficiencies in labeling of commercial probiotics. Can Vet J 2003;44:982983.

  • 11.

    Pion PD, Kittleson MD, Rogers QR, et al. Myocardial failure in cats associated with low plasma taurine: a reversible cardiomyopathy. Science 1987;237:764768.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Kirk CA, Debraekeleer J, Armstrong PJ. Normal cats. In: Hand MS, Thatcher CD, Remillard RL, et al, eds. Small animal clinical nutrition. 4th ed. Marceline, Mo: Walsworth Publishing Co, 2000;291347.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Fascetti AJ, Reed JR, Rogers QR, et al. Taurine deficiency in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy: 12 cases (1997–2001). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:11371141.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Backus RC, Cohen G, Pion PD, et al. Taurine deficiency in Newfoundlands fed commercially available complete and balanced diets. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:11301136.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Backus RC, Ko KS, Fascetti AJ, et al. Low plasma taurine concentration in Newfoundland dogs is associated with low plasma methionine and cyst(e)ine concentrations and low taurine synthesis. J Nutr 2006;136:25252533.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Kittleson MD, Keene B, Pion PD, et al. Results of the multicenter spaniel trial (MUST): taurine- and carnitine-responsive dilated cardiomyopathy in American cocker spaniels with decreased plasma taurine concentration. J Vet Intern Med 1997;11:204211.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Keene BW, Panciera DP, Atkins CE, et al. Myocardial L-carnitine deficiency in a family of dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1991;198:647650.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Freeman LM, Rush JE. Nutritional management of cardiac disease. In: Ettinger SJ, ed. Textbook of veterinary internal medicine. 6th ed. St Louis: Elsevier, 2005;579583.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Torin DS, Freeman LM, Rush JE. Dietary patterns of cats with cardiac disease. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007;230:862867.

  • 20.

    US FDA, Center fo. Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Guidance for industry: a dietary supplement labeling guide. Available at: www.cfsan.fda.gov/∼dms/dslg-toc.html. Accessed Apr 3, 2008.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Parvin R, Pande SV. Microdetermination of (-)carnitine and carnitine acetyltransferase activity. Anal Biochem 1977;79:190201.

  • 22.

    Stewart JWB, Bettaney JR. Mercury. In: Page AL, Miller RH, Keeney DR, eds. Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. 2nd ed. Madison, Wis: American Society of Agronomy Inc and Soil Science Society of America Inc, 1982;375.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Consumerlab.com Web site. Consumerlab.com “home test” for disintegration. Available at: www.consumerlab.com/results/hometest.asp. Accessed Sep 26, 2008.

  • 24.

    Hernot DC, Biourge VC, Martin MJ, et al. Relationship between total transit time and faecal quality in adult dogs differing in body size. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2005;89:189193.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Hernot DC, Dumon HJ, Biourge VC, et al. Evaluation of association between body size and large intestinal transit time in healthy dogs. Am J Vet Res 2006;67:342347.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Peachey SE, Dawson JM, Harper EJ. Gastrointestinal transit times in young and old cats. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2000;126:8590.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    US Pharmacopeia. Convention. Disintegration and dissolution of dietary supplements. United States Pharmacopoeia 31—National Formulary 26. Rockville, Md: US Pharmacopeial Convention, 2007;733736.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Fan AM, Kizer KW. Selenium. Nutritional, toxicologic and clinical aspects. West J Med 1990;153:160167.

  • 29.

    Association o. American Feed Control Officials. 2008 official publication. Oxford, Ind: Association of American Feed Control Officials, 2008;131132.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Consumerlab.com Web site. Available at: www.consumerlab.com. Accessed Oct 20, 2008.

  • 31.

    US Pharmacopeia Web site. Available at: www.usp.org/USPVerified. Accessed Oct 20, 2008.

  • 32.

    Roseland JM, Holden JM, Andrews KW, et al. Dietary supplement ingredient database (DSID): preliminary USDA studies on the composition of adult multivitamin/mineral supplements. J Food Comp Anal 2008;21:S69S77.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    US FDA. Fact sheet: dietary supplement current good manufacturing practices (CGMPs) and interim final rule (IFR) facts. Available at: www.cfsan.fda.gov/∼dms/dscgmps6.html. Accessed Feb 26, 2008.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Composition, disintegrative properties, and labeling compliance of commercially available taurine and carnitine dietary products

Rebecca R. Bragg BA1, Lisa M. Freeman DVM, PhD, DACVN2, Andrea J. Fascetti VMD, PhD, DACVN, DACVIM3, and Zengshou Yu PhD4
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Clinical Sciences, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536.
  • | 2 Department of Clinical Sciences, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536.
  • | 3 Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 4 Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

Abstract

Objective—To test the quality, disintegration properties, and compliance with labeling regulations for representative commercially available taurine and carnitine dietary products.

Design—Evaluation study.

Sample Population—11 commercially available taurine and 10 commercially available carnitine products.

Procedures—For each product, the amount of taurine or carnitine was determined and compared with the label claim. All products were evaluated for concentrations of mercury, arsenic, and selenium. Disintegration properties of 5 taurine and 8 carnitine products were determined in vitro. Labels were evaluated for compliance with FDA guidelines.

Results—10 of 11 taurine and 10 of 10 carnitine products were within 10% of the stated label claim. Three of 11 taurine and 6 of 10 carnitine products were within 5% of the stated label claim. The median percentage difference between laboratory analysis and label claim was −5.7% (range, −26.3% to 2.5%) for taurine and 3.6% (range, −2.6% to 8.8%) for carnitine. No substantial amount of contamination with mercury, arsenic, or selenium was found in any of the products. During disintegration testing, 1 of 5 taurine products and 5 of 8 carnitine products did not disintegrate within 45 minutes during at least 1 test. Disintegration time for those that did disintegrate ranged from 1.7 to 37.0 minutes. All product labels conformed with FDA regulations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Taurine and carnitine products evaluated in this study closely adhered to manufacturer claims and labeling guidelines. However, disintegration testing suggested high variability in some products, possibly limiting uptake and use by animals that receive them.

Abstract

Objective—To test the quality, disintegration properties, and compliance with labeling regulations for representative commercially available taurine and carnitine dietary products.

Design—Evaluation study.

Sample Population—11 commercially available taurine and 10 commercially available carnitine products.

Procedures—For each product, the amount of taurine or carnitine was determined and compared with the label claim. All products were evaluated for concentrations of mercury, arsenic, and selenium. Disintegration properties of 5 taurine and 8 carnitine products were determined in vitro. Labels were evaluated for compliance with FDA guidelines.

Results—10 of 11 taurine and 10 of 10 carnitine products were within 10% of the stated label claim. Three of 11 taurine and 6 of 10 carnitine products were within 5% of the stated label claim. The median percentage difference between laboratory analysis and label claim was −5.7% (range, −26.3% to 2.5%) for taurine and 3.6% (range, −2.6% to 8.8%) for carnitine. No substantial amount of contamination with mercury, arsenic, or selenium was found in any of the products. During disintegration testing, 1 of 5 taurine products and 5 of 8 carnitine products did not disintegrate within 45 minutes during at least 1 test. Disintegration time for those that did disintegrate ranged from 1.7 to 37.0 minutes. All product labels conformed with FDA regulations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Taurine and carnitine products evaluated in this study closely adhered to manufacturer claims and labeling guidelines. However, disintegration testing suggested high variability in some products, possibly limiting uptake and use by animals that receive them.

Contributor Notes

Supported by the Barkley Fund.

Address correspondence to Dr. Freeman.