Evaluation of allele frequencies of inherited disease genes in subgroups of American Quarter Horses

Robert C. Tryon Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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M. Cecilia T. Penedo Veterinary Genetics Laboratory, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Molly E. McCue Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.

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Stephanie J. Valberg Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.

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James R. Mickelson Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.

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Thomas R. Famula Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Michelle L. Wagner College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.

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Mark Jackson Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.

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Michael J. Hamilton Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Sabine Nooteboom Veterinary Genetics Laboratory, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Danika L. Bannasch Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Abstract

Objective—To estimate allele frequencies of the hyperkalaemic periodic paralysis (HYPP), lethal white foal syndrome (LWFS), glycogen branching enzyme deficiency (GBED), hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA), and type 1 polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) genes in elite performance subgroups of American Quarter Horses (AQHs).

Design—Prospective genetic survey.

Animals—651 elite performance AQHs, 200 control AQHs, and 180 control American Paint Horses (APHs).

Procedures—Elite performance AQHs successful in 7 competitive disciplines (barrel racing, cutting, halter, racing, reining, western pleasure, and working cow horse) were geno- typed for 5 disease-causing alleles. Age-matched control AQHs and APHs were used to establish comparative whole-breed estimates of allele frequencies.

Results—Highest allele frequencies among control AQHs were for type 1 PSSM (0.055) and GBED (0.054), whereas HERDA (0.021) and HYPP (0.008) were less prevalent. Control APHs uniquely harbored LWFS (0.107) and had high prevalence of HYPP (0.025), relative to AQHs. Halter horse subgroups had significantly greater allele frequencies for HYPP (0.299) and PSSM (0.155). Glycogen branching enzyme deficiency, HERDA, and PSSM were found broadly throughout subgroups; cutting subgroups were distinct for HERDA (0.142), and western pleasure subgroups were distinct for GBED (0.132). Racing and barrel racing subgroups had the lowest frequencies of the 5 disease genes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Accurate estimates of disease-causing alleles in AQHs and APHs may guide use of diagnostic genetic testing, aid management of genetic diseases, and help minimize production of affected foals.

Abstract

Objective—To estimate allele frequencies of the hyperkalaemic periodic paralysis (HYPP), lethal white foal syndrome (LWFS), glycogen branching enzyme deficiency (GBED), hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA), and type 1 polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) genes in elite performance subgroups of American Quarter Horses (AQHs).

Design—Prospective genetic survey.

Animals—651 elite performance AQHs, 200 control AQHs, and 180 control American Paint Horses (APHs).

Procedures—Elite performance AQHs successful in 7 competitive disciplines (barrel racing, cutting, halter, racing, reining, western pleasure, and working cow horse) were geno- typed for 5 disease-causing alleles. Age-matched control AQHs and APHs were used to establish comparative whole-breed estimates of allele frequencies.

Results—Highest allele frequencies among control AQHs were for type 1 PSSM (0.055) and GBED (0.054), whereas HERDA (0.021) and HYPP (0.008) were less prevalent. Control APHs uniquely harbored LWFS (0.107) and had high prevalence of HYPP (0.025), relative to AQHs. Halter horse subgroups had significantly greater allele frequencies for HYPP (0.299) and PSSM (0.155). Glycogen branching enzyme deficiency, HERDA, and PSSM were found broadly throughout subgroups; cutting subgroups were distinct for HERDA (0.142), and western pleasure subgroups were distinct for GBED (0.132). Racing and barrel racing subgroups had the lowest frequencies of the 5 disease genes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Accurate estimates of disease-causing alleles in AQHs and APHs may guide use of diagnostic genetic testing, aid management of genetic diseases, and help minimize production of affected foals.

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