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Association of periodontal disease, oral procedures, and other clinical findings with bacterial endocarditis in dogs

Gordon D. PeddleDepartment of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.

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Kenneth J. DrobatzDepartment of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.

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Colin E. HarveyDepartment of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.

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Allison AdamsDepartment of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.

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Meg M. SleeperDepartment of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.

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Abstract

Objective—To identify risk factors potentially associated with the development of bacterial endocarditis in dogs and determine whether periodontal disease and surgical procedures (oral and nonoral) were associated with bacterial endocarditis.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—76 dogs with (cases) and 80 dogs without (controls) bacterial endocarditis.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on signalment, physical examination findings, recent medical history, and results of echocardiography, clinicopatho- logic testing, and necropsy.

Results—None of the dogs with endocarditis had a history of undergoing any dental or oral procedure in the 3 months prior to the diagnosis of endocarditis, and no significant difference was found between groups with regard to the prevalence of oral infection. Dogs with endocarditis were significantly more likely to have undergone a nonoral surgical procedure that required general anesthesia in the preceding 3 months or to have developed a new heart murmur or a change in intensity of an existing heart murmur. Preexisting cardiac dis-ease (congenital or acquired) was not found to be a risk factor.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results did not provide any evidence of an association between bacterial endocarditis in dogs and either dental or oral surgical procedures or oral infection. Findings suggested that the routine use of prophylactic antimicrobial administration in dogs undergoing oral procedures needs to be reevaluated.

Abstract

Objective—To identify risk factors potentially associated with the development of bacterial endocarditis in dogs and determine whether periodontal disease and surgical procedures (oral and nonoral) were associated with bacterial endocarditis.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—76 dogs with (cases) and 80 dogs without (controls) bacterial endocarditis.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on signalment, physical examination findings, recent medical history, and results of echocardiography, clinicopatho- logic testing, and necropsy.

Results—None of the dogs with endocarditis had a history of undergoing any dental or oral procedure in the 3 months prior to the diagnosis of endocarditis, and no significant difference was found between groups with regard to the prevalence of oral infection. Dogs with endocarditis were significantly more likely to have undergone a nonoral surgical procedure that required general anesthesia in the preceding 3 months or to have developed a new heart murmur or a change in intensity of an existing heart murmur. Preexisting cardiac dis-ease (congenital or acquired) was not found to be a risk factor.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results did not provide any evidence of an association between bacterial endocarditis in dogs and either dental or oral surgical procedures or oral infection. Findings suggested that the routine use of prophylactic antimicrobial administration in dogs undergoing oral procedures needs to be reevaluated.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Peddle.