• 1.

    Coolman BR, Marretta SM, Mc Kiernan, et al. Choanal atresia and secondary nasopharyngeal stenosis in a dog. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1998;34:497501.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Khoo AM, Marchevshy AM, Barrs VR. Choanal atresia in a Himalayan cat—first reported case and successful treatment. J Feline Med Surg 2007;9:346349.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Boswood A, Lamb CR, Brockman DJ, et al. Balloon dilatation of nasopharyngeal stenosis in a cat. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2003;44:5355.

  • 4.

    Mitten RW. Nasopharyngeal stenosis in four cats. J Small Anim Pract 1988;29:341345.

  • 5.

    Glaus TM, Gerber M, Tomsa K, et al. Reproducible and longlasting success of balloon dilation of nasopharyngeal stenosis in cats. Vet Rec 2005;157:257259.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Glaus TM, Tomsa K, Reusch CE. Balloon dilation for the treatment of chronic recurrent nasopharyngeal stenosis in a cat. J Small Anim Pract 2002;43:8890.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Novo RE, Kramek B. Surgical repair of nasopharyngeal stenosis in a cat using a stent. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1999;35:251256.

  • 8.

    Berent AC, Kinns J, Weisse C. Balloon dilatation of nasopharyngeal stenosis in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006;229:385388.

  • 9.

    Allen HS, Broussard J, Noone KE. Nasopharyngeal diseases in cats: a retrospective study of 53 cases (1991–1998). J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1999;35:457461.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Chang Y, Thompson H, Reed N, et al. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging features of nasopharyngeal lymphoma in two cats with concurrent intracranial mass. J Small Anim Pract 2006;47:678681.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Henderson SM, Day BM, Caney SM, et al. Investigation of nasal disease in the cat—a retrospective study of 77 cases. J Feline Med Surg 2004;6:245257.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Hunt GB, Perkins MC, Foster SF, et al. Nasopharyngeal disorder of dogs and cats: a review and retrospective study. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 2002;24:184198.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Billen F, Day MJ. Clercx. Diagnosis of pharyngeal disorders in dogs: a retrospective study of 67 cases. J Small Anim Pract 2006;47:122129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Griffon DJ, Tasker S. Mucosal advancement flap for the treatment of nasopharyngeal stenosis in a cat. J Small Anim Pract 2000;41:7173.

  • 15.

    Jones LM, Guillory VL, Mair EA. Total nasopharyngeal stenosis: treatment with laser excision, nasopharyngeal obturators, and topical mitomycin-c. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2005;133:795798.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Krespi YP, Kacker A. Management of nasopharyngeal stenosis after uvulopalatoplasty. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2000;123:692695.

  • 17.

    Chang YC, Chen YH, Tsai MH. A new stenting technique for the treatment of nasopharyngeal stenosis. J Otolaryngol 2006;35:430431.

  • 18.

    Slovis TL, Renfro B, Watts FB, et al. Choanal atresia: precise CT evaluation. Radiology 185;155:345348.

  • 19.

    Khafagy YW. Endoscopic repair of bilateral congenital choanal atresia. Laryngoscope 2002;112:316319.

  • 20.

    Rowe-Jones JM, George CD, Moore-Gillon V, et al. Balloon dilatation of the pharynx. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci 1993;18:102107.

  • 21.

    McLaughlin KE, Jacobs IN, Todd NW, et al. Management of nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal stenosis in children. Laryngoscope 1997;107:13221331.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Daher P, Riachy E, Georges B, et al. Topical application of mitomycin C in the treatment of esophageal and tracheobronchial stricture: a report of 2 cases. J Pediatr Surg 2007;42:E9E11.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Mazdak H, Meshki I, Ghassami F. Effect of Mitomycin C on anterior urethral stricture after recurrence after internal urethrotomy. Eur Urol 2007;51:10891092.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Turkyilmaz Z, Sonmez K, Demirtola A, et al. Mitomycin C prevents strictures in caustic esophageal burns in rats. J Surg Res 2005;123:182187.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Prasad M, Ward RF, April MM, et al. Topical mitomycin as an adjunct to choanal atresia repair. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2002;128:398400.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Use of a balloon-expandable metallic stent for treatment of nasopharyngeal stenosis in dogs and cats: six cases (2005–2007)

Allyson C. Berent DVM, DACVIM1, Chick Weisse VMD, DACVS2, Kimberly Todd1,2,3,4, Mark P. Rondeau DVM, DACVIM3, and Alexander M. Reiter Dr med vet, DAVDC4
View More View Less
  • 1 Section of Internal Medicine, Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
  • | 2 Section of Surgery, Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
  • | 3 Section of Internal Medicine, Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
  • | 4 Section of Surgery, Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.

Abstract

Objective—To determine outcome associated with use of a balloon-expandable metallic stent for treatment of nasopharyngeal stenosis in dogs and cats.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—3 dogs and 3 cats.

Procedures—All 6 animals had severe inspiratory stertor at initial examination. Two animals had no orifice present at the stenosis. Nasopharyngeal stenosis was diagnosed and stent size determined by use of computed tomography. A percutaneous transluminal angioplasty balloon premounted with a balloon-expandable metallic stent was placed over a guidewire, advanced through the stenotic lesion under fluoroscopic and rhinoscopic guidance, and dilated to restore patency.

Results—All animals had immediate resolution of clinical signs after stent placement. The procedure took a median of 38 minutes (range, 22 to 70 minutes). One animal with a stenosis located far caudally needed the tip of the stent resected because of hairball entrapment and exaggerated swallowing. Both animals without an orifice in the stenosis had tissue in-growth requiring a covered stent. All animals were reexamined 6 to 12 weeks after treatment via rhinoscopy, radiography, computed tomography, or a combination of techniques. All animals lacked signs of discomfort; 5 of 6 were breathing normally 12 to 28 months after the procedure.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Transnasal balloon-expandable metallic stent placement may represent a rapid, safe, noninvasive, and effective treatment in animals with nasopharyngeal stenosis. If the stenosis is extremely caudal in the nasopharynx, serial balloon dilatation might be considered prior to stent placement. A covered stent should be considered initially if the stenosis is completely closed.

Abstract

Objective—To determine outcome associated with use of a balloon-expandable metallic stent for treatment of nasopharyngeal stenosis in dogs and cats.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—3 dogs and 3 cats.

Procedures—All 6 animals had severe inspiratory stertor at initial examination. Two animals had no orifice present at the stenosis. Nasopharyngeal stenosis was diagnosed and stent size determined by use of computed tomography. A percutaneous transluminal angioplasty balloon premounted with a balloon-expandable metallic stent was placed over a guidewire, advanced through the stenotic lesion under fluoroscopic and rhinoscopic guidance, and dilated to restore patency.

Results—All animals had immediate resolution of clinical signs after stent placement. The procedure took a median of 38 minutes (range, 22 to 70 minutes). One animal with a stenosis located far caudally needed the tip of the stent resected because of hairball entrapment and exaggerated swallowing. Both animals without an orifice in the stenosis had tissue in-growth requiring a covered stent. All animals were reexamined 6 to 12 weeks after treatment via rhinoscopy, radiography, computed tomography, or a combination of techniques. All animals lacked signs of discomfort; 5 of 6 were breathing normally 12 to 28 months after the procedure.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Transnasal balloon-expandable metallic stent placement may represent a rapid, safe, noninvasive, and effective treatment in animals with nasopharyngeal stenosis. If the stenosis is extremely caudal in the nasopharynx, serial balloon dilatation might be considered prior to stent placement. A covered stent should be considered initially if the stenosis is completely closed.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Berent.