• 1.

    Govendir M, Perkins M, Malik R. Improving seizure control in dogs with refractory epilepsy using gabapentin as an adjunctive agent. Aust Vet J 2005;83:602608.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Foster SF, Church DB, Watson ADJ. Effects of phenobarbitone on serum biochemical tests in dogs. Aust Vet J 2000;78:2326.

  • 3.

    Gaskill CL, Cribb AE. Pancreatitis associated with potassium bromide/phenobarbital combination therapy in epileptic dogs. Can Vet J 2000;41:555558.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Rogers WA, Donovan EF, Kociba GJ. Idiopathic hyperlipoproteinemia in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1975;166:10871091.

  • 5.

    Aarli JA. Neurological manifestations in hyperlipidemia. Neurology 1968;18:883886.

  • 6.

    Bodkin K. Seizures associated with hyperlipoproteinemia in a Miniature Schnauzer. Canine Pract 1992;17(1):1115.

  • 7.

    Whitney MS. Evaluation of hyperlipidemias in dogs and cats. Semin Vet Med Surg (Small Anim) 1992;7:292300.

  • 8.

    Mead JR, Irvine SA, Ramjii DP. Lipoprotein lipase: structure, function, regulation and role in disease. J Mol Med 2002;80:753769.

  • 9.

    Fugier C, Tousaint J-J, Prieur X, et al. The lipoprotein lipase inhibitor ANGPTL3 is negatively regulated by thyroid hormone. J Biol Chem 2006;281:1155311559.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Goldberg DM, Roomi MW, Yu A, et al. Effects of phenobarbital upon triacylglycerol metabolism in the rabbit. Biochem J 1980;192:165175.

  • 11.

    Goldberg DM, Yu A, Roomi MW, et al. Effects of phenobarbital upon triacylglycerol metabolism in the guinea pig. Can J Biochem 1981;59:4853.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Heller FR, Desager JP, Harvengt C. Changes in plasma activities of lipolytic enzymes and lipids of normolipidemic subjects given phenobarbital, a strong microsomal inducer, alone or in combination with fenofibrate. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 1988;26:138142.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    LaFlamme D. Development and validation of a body condition score system for dogs; a clinical tool. Canine Pract 1997;22(4):1015.

  • 14.

    McNeely S, Seatter K. The 16-hour-standing test and lipoprotein electrophoresis compared for detection of chylomicrons in plasma. Clin Chem 1981;27:731732.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Sattler W, Mohr D, Stocker R. Rapid isolation of lipoproteins and assessment of their peroxidation by high performance liquid chromatography postcolumn chemiluminescence. Methods Enzymol 1994;233:469489.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Lairon D, Lopez-Miranda J, Williams C. Methodology for studying postprandial lipid metabolism. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007;61:11451161.

  • 17.

    Jeusette IC, Lhoest ET, Istasse LP, et al. Influence of obesity on plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in dogs. Am J Vet Res 2005;66:8186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Podell M. Seizures in dogs. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1996;26:779809.

  • 19.

    Ruotolo G, Howard BV, Robbins DC. Dyslipidemia of obesity. Available at: endotext.com/obesity/obesity10/obesityframe10.htm. Accessed Aug 20, 2006.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Eiris JM, Lojo S, Del Rio MC, et al. Effects of long-term treatment with antiepileptic drugs on serum lipid levels in children with epilepsy. Neurology 1995;45:11551157.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Watson TD, Mackenzie JA, Stewart JP, et al. Use of oral and intravenous fat tolerance tests to assess plasma chylomicron clearance in dogs. Res Vet Sci 1995;58:256262.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Acheson DWK, Rose P, Houston JB, et al. Induction of cytochromes P-450 in pancreatic disease: consequence, coincidence or cause? Clin Chim Acta 1985;153:7384.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Bauer JE. Lipoprotein-mediated transport of dietary and synthesized lipids and lipid abnormalities of dogs and cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:668675.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Johnson MC. Hyperlipidemia disorders in dogs. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 2005;27:361370.

  • 25.

    Gaskill CL, Burton SA, Gelens HCJ, et al. Effects of phenobarbital treatment on serum thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations in epileptic dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:489496.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Gaskill CL, Hoffmann WE, Cribb AE. Serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme profiles in phenobarbital-treated epileptic dogs. Vet Clin Pathol 2004;33:215222.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Serum triglyceride concentration in dogs with epilepsy treated with phenobarbital or with phenobarbital and bromide

Elissa K. Kluger BVSc1, Richard Malik DVSc, PhD2, William J. Ilkin BVSc3, David Snow DVSc, PhD4, David R. Sullivan MBBS5, and Merran Govendir BVSc, PhD6
View More View Less
  • 1 Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
  • | 2 Post Graduate Foundation in Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
  • | 3 Kirrawee Veterinary Hospital, 540 Princes Hwy, Kirrawee, NSW 2232, Australia.
  • | 4 Symbion Vetnostics Laboratory, 60 Waterloo Rd, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia.
  • | 5 Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia.
  • | 6 Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

Abstract

Objective—To compare serum triglyceride concentrations obtained after food had been withheld (ie, fasting concentrations) in dogs with epilepsy that had been treated long term (t 3 months) with phenobarbital or with phenobarbital and potassium bromide with concentrations in healthy control dogs.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—57 epileptic dogs that had been treated with phenobarbital (n = 28) or with phenobarbital and bromide (29) and 57 healthy, untreated control dogs matched on the basis of age, breed, sex, neuter status, and body condition score.

Procedures—Blood samples were collected after food had been withheld for at least 12 hours, and serum biochemical and lipid concentrations were determined. Oral fat tolerance tests were performed in 15 control dogs and 9 dogs with epilepsy treated with phenobarbital alone.

Results—19 of the 57 (33%) epileptic dogs had fasting serum triglyceride concentrations greater than the upper reference limit. Nine (16%) dogs had a history of pancreatitis, and 5 of the 9 had high fasting serum triglyceride concentrations at the time of the study. A significant relationship was found between body condition score and fasting serum triglyceride concentration in all dogs, but serum triglyceride concentration was not significantly associated with phenobarbital dosage or serum phenobarbital concentration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that dogs treated long term with phenobarbital or with phenobarbital and bromide may develop hypertriglyceridemia. Fasting serum triglyceride concentration should be periodically monitored in dogs treated with phenobarbital because hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for pancreatitis.

Abstract

Objective—To compare serum triglyceride concentrations obtained after food had been withheld (ie, fasting concentrations) in dogs with epilepsy that had been treated long term (t 3 months) with phenobarbital or with phenobarbital and potassium bromide with concentrations in healthy control dogs.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—57 epileptic dogs that had been treated with phenobarbital (n = 28) or with phenobarbital and bromide (29) and 57 healthy, untreated control dogs matched on the basis of age, breed, sex, neuter status, and body condition score.

Procedures—Blood samples were collected after food had been withheld for at least 12 hours, and serum biochemical and lipid concentrations were determined. Oral fat tolerance tests were performed in 15 control dogs and 9 dogs with epilepsy treated with phenobarbital alone.

Results—19 of the 57 (33%) epileptic dogs had fasting serum triglyceride concentrations greater than the upper reference limit. Nine (16%) dogs had a history of pancreatitis, and 5 of the 9 had high fasting serum triglyceride concentrations at the time of the study. A significant relationship was found between body condition score and fasting serum triglyceride concentration in all dogs, but serum triglyceride concentration was not significantly associated with phenobarbital dosage or serum phenobarbital concentration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that dogs treated long term with phenobarbital or with phenobarbital and bromide may develop hypertriglyceridemia. Fasting serum triglyceride concentration should be periodically monitored in dogs treated with phenobarbital because hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for pancreatitis.

Contributor Notes

Supported by the Canine Research Foundation and the WP Richards Bequest.

Professor Malik was supported by the Valentine Charlton Bequest.

Dr. David Snow manages the veterinary division of Symbion Vetnostics Laboratory, and part-owns the company Hi-Perform Veterinary Products, which produces potassium bromide (Epibrom) and phenobarbital (Epiphen) in Australia.

This study does not promote the use of these specific anti-epileptic drugs, and medications were not subsidized during this study.

The authors thank Drs. Georgina Child, Sonya El-Chami, Jennifer Price, Polina Ryuntyu, Nicola Martinson, Phillip McDonagh, and Julia Beatty for assistance; Drs. Roland Stocker and Cacang Suarna for technical assistance with lipoprotein ultracentrifugation; Peter Thompson and Navneet Dhand for assistance with statistical analyses; and Jennifer Burns and Francesca Volpato for assistance with lipoprotein electrophoresis.

Address correspondence to Dr. Kluger.